## A new innovative real-time tracking method for flying insects applicable under natural conditions

2021
##### Authors
Walter, Thomas
Degen, Jacqueline
Pfeiffer, Keram
Montenegro, Sergio
Degen, Tobias
Journal article
Published
##### Published in
BMC Zoology ; 6 (2021). - 35. - BioMed Central. - eISSN 2056-3132
##### Abstract
Background:
Sixty percent of all species are insects, yet despite global efforts to monitor animal movement patterns, insects are continuously underrepresented. This striking difference between species richness and the number of species monitored is not due to a lack of interest but rather to the lack of technical solutions. Often the accuracy and speed of established tracking methods is not high enough to record behavior and react to it experimentally in real-time, which applies in particular to small flying animals.

Results:
Our new method of real-time tracking relates to frequencies of solar radiation which are almost completely absorbed by traveling through the atmosphere. For tracking, photoluminescent tags with a peak emission (1400 nm), which lays in such a region of strong absorption through the atmosphere, were attached to the animals. The photoluminescent properties of passivated lead sulphide quantum dots were responsible for the emission of light by the tags and provide a superb signal-to noise ratio. We developed prototype markers with a weight of 12.5 mg and a diameter of 5 mm. Furthermore, we developed a short wave infrared detection system which can record and determine the position of an animal in a heterogeneous environment with a delay smaller than 10 ms. With this method we were able to track tagged bumblebees as well as hawk moths in a flight arena that was placed outside on a natural meadow.

Conclusion:
Our new method eliminates the necessity of a constant or predictable environment for many experimental setups. Furthermore, we postulate that the developed matrix-detector mounted to a multicopter will enable tracking of small flying insects, over medium range distances (>1000 m) in the near future because: a) the matrix-detector equipped with an 70 mm interchangeable lens weighs less than 380 g, b) it evaluates the position of an animal in real-time and c) it can directly control and communicate with electronic devices.
##### Subject (DDC)
570 Biosciences, Biology
##### Keywords
Natural environment, Insect tracking, Real-time, Movement ecology, Heterogeneous background
##### Cite This
ISO 690WALTER, Thomas, Jacqueline DEGEN, Keram PFEIFFER, Anna L. STÖCKL, Sergio MONTENEGRO, Tobias DEGEN, 2021. A new innovative real-time tracking method for flying insects applicable under natural conditions. In: BMC Zoology. BioMed Central. 6, 35. eISSN 2056-3132. Available under: doi: 10.1186/s40850-021-00097-3
BibTex
@article{Walter2021-12-23innov-60080,
year={2021},
doi={10.1186/s40850-021-00097-3},
title={A new innovative real-time tracking method for flying insects applicable under natural conditions},
volume={6},
journal={BMC Zoology},
author={Walter, Thomas and Degen, Jacqueline and Pfeiffer, Keram and Stöckl, Anna L. and Montenegro, Sergio and Degen, Tobias},
note={Article Number: 35}
}

RDF
<rdf:RDF
xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/"
xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#"
xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" >
<foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/"/>
<bibo:uri rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/60080"/>
<dc:contributor>Montenegro, Sergio</dc:contributor>
<dc:contributor>Walter, Thomas</dc:contributor>
<dc:contributor>Degen, Jacqueline</dc:contributor>
<dc:language>eng</dc:language>
<dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/>
<dcterms:title>A new innovative real-time tracking method for flying insects applicable under natural conditions</dcterms:title>
<dc:contributor>Degen, Tobias</dc:contributor>
<dspace:hasBitstream rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/60080/3/Walter_2-wskcl95prhsv6.pdf"/>
<dc:contributor>Pfeiffer, Keram</dc:contributor>
<dc:creator>Walter, Thomas</dc:creator>
<dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/>
<dc:creator>Degen, Jacqueline</dc:creator>
<dcterms:issued>2021-12-23</dcterms:issued>
<dc:creator>Pfeiffer, Keram</dc:creator>
<dcterms:hasPart rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/60080/3/Walter_2-wskcl95prhsv6.pdf"/>
<dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2023-02-03T09:30:28Z</dc:date>
<dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Background:&lt;br /&gt;Sixty percent of all species are insects, yet despite global efforts to monitor animal movement patterns, insects are continuously underrepresented. This striking difference between species richness and the number of species monitored is not due to a lack of interest but rather to the lack of technical solutions. Often the accuracy and speed of established tracking methods is not high enough to record behavior and react to it experimentally in real-time, which applies in particular to small flying animals.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Results:&lt;br /&gt;Our new method of real-time tracking relates to frequencies of solar radiation which are almost completely absorbed by traveling through the atmosphere. For tracking, photoluminescent tags with a peak emission (1400 nm), which lays in such a region of strong absorption through the atmosphere, were attached to the animals. The photoluminescent properties of passivated lead sulphide quantum dots were responsible for the emission of light by the tags and provide a superb signal-to noise ratio. We developed prototype markers with a weight of 12.5 mg and a diameter of 5 mm. Furthermore, we developed a short wave infrared detection system which can record and determine the position of an animal in a heterogeneous environment with a delay smaller than 10 ms. With this method we were able to track tagged bumblebees as well as hawk moths in a flight arena that was placed outside on a natural meadow.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Conclusion:&lt;br /&gt;Our new method eliminates the necessity of a constant or predictable environment for many experimental setups. Furthermore, we postulate that the developed matrix-detector mounted to a multicopter will enable tracking of small flying insects, over medium range distances (&gt;1000 m) in the near future because: a) the matrix-detector equipped with an 70 mm interchangeable lens weighs less than 380 g, b) it evaluates the position of an animal in real-time and c) it can directly control and communicate with electronic devices.</dcterms:abstract>
<dc:creator>Stöckl, Anna L.</dc:creator>
<void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource="http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql"/>