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What is unique about the human eye? : Comparative image analysis on the external eye morphology of human and nonhuman great apes

What is unique about the human eye? : Comparative image analysis on the external eye morphology of human and nonhuman great apes

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KANO, Fumihiro, Takeshi FURUICHI, Chie HASHIMOTO, Christopher KRUPENYE, Jesse G. LEINWAND, Lydia M. HOPPER, Christopher F. MARTIN, Ryoma OTSUKA, Tomoyuki TAJIMA, 2022. What is unique about the human eye? : Comparative image analysis on the external eye morphology of human and nonhuman great apes. In: Evolution and Human Behavior. Elsevier. 43(3), pp. 169-180. ISSN 1090-5138. eISSN 1879-0607. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2021.12.004

@article{Kano2022uniqu-57717, title={What is unique about the human eye? : Comparative image analysis on the external eye morphology of human and nonhuman great apes}, year={2022}, doi={10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2021.12.004}, number={3}, volume={43}, issn={1090-5138}, journal={Evolution and Human Behavior}, pages={169--180}, author={Kano, Fumihiro and Furuichi, Takeshi and Hashimoto, Chie and Krupenye, Christopher and Leinwand, Jesse G. and Hopper, Lydia M. and Martin, Christopher F. and Otsuka, Ryoma and Tajima, Tomoyuki} }

<rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/57717"> <dc:language>eng</dc:language> <dc:creator>Krupenye, Christopher</dc:creator> <foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/jspui"/> <dc:contributor>Leinwand, Jesse G.</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Kano, Fumihiro</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Furuichi, Takeshi</dc:creator> <dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2022-06-01T13:01:12Z</dcterms:available> <void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource="http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql"/> <dc:contributor>Kano, Fumihiro</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Hopper, Lydia M.</dc:contributor> <dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2022-06-01T13:01:12Z</dc:date> <dc:creator>Martin, Christopher F.</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Hopper, Lydia M.</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Otsuka, Ryoma</dc:contributor> <dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/> <dc:contributor>Hashimoto, Chie</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Leinwand, Jesse G.</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Furuichi, Takeshi</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Tajima, Tomoyuki</dc:creator> <bibo:uri rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/57717"/> <dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/> <dc:contributor>Martin, Christopher F.</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Hashimoto, Chie</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Krupenye, Christopher</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Tajima, Tomoyuki</dc:contributor> <dcterms:title>What is unique about the human eye? : Comparative image analysis on the external eye morphology of human and nonhuman great apes</dcterms:title> <dc:creator>Otsuka, Ryoma</dc:creator> <dcterms:issued>2022</dcterms:issued> <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">The gaze-signaling hypothesis and the related cooperative-eye hypothesis posit that humans have evolved special external eye morphology, including exposed white sclera (the white of the eye), to enhance the visibility of eye-gaze direction and thereby facilitate conspecific communication through joint-attentional interaction and ostensive communication. However, recent quantitative studies questioned these hypotheses based on new findings that certain features of human eyes are not necessarily unique among great ape species. Accordingly, there is currently a heated debate over whether external eye features of humans are distinct from those of other apes and how such distinguishable features contribute to the visibility of eye-gaze direction. The present study leveraged updated image analysis techniques to test the uniqueness of human eye features in facial images of great apes. Although many eye features were similar between humans and other great apes, a key difference was that humans have uniformly white sclera which creates clear visibility of both the eye outline and iris—the two essential features contributing to the visibility of eye-gaze direction. We then tested the robustness of the visibility of these features against visual noise, such as shading and distancing, and found that both eye features remain detectable in the human eye, while eye outline becomes barely detectable in other species under these visually challenging conditions. Overall, we identified that humans have unique external eye morphology among other great apes, which ensures the robustness of eye-gaze signals in various visual conditions. Our results support and also critically update the central premises of the gaze-signaling hypothesis.</dcterms:abstract> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>

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