Journal article:
Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton

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2018
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Neave, Matthew J.
Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi
Wild, Christian
Gärdes, Astrid
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Abstract
Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.
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570 Biosciences, Biology
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The ISME journal ; 12 (2018), 1. - pp. 59-76. - Nature Publishing Group. - ISSN 1751-7362. - eISSN 1751-7370
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Cite This
ISO 690CÁRDENAS, Anny, Matthew J. NEAVE, Mohamed Fauzi HAROON, Claudia POGOREUTZ, Nils RÄDECKER, Christian WILD, Astrid GÄRDES, Christian R. VOOLSTRA, 2018. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton. In: The ISME journal. Nature Publishing Group. 12(1), pp. 59-76. ISSN 1751-7362. eISSN 1751-7370. Available under: doi: 10.1038/ismej.2017.142
BibTex
@article{Cardenas2018Exces-51097,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.1038/ismej.2017.142},
  title={Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton},
  number={1},
  volume={12},
  issn={1751-7362},
  journal={The ISME journal},
  pages={59--76},
  author={Cárdenas, Anny and Neave, Matthew J. and Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi and Pogoreutz, Claudia and Rädecker, Nils and Wild, Christian and Gärdes, Astrid and Voolstra, Christian R.}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (&gt;70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.</dcterms:abstract>
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