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Genomes reveal marked differences in the adaptive evolution between orangutan species

Genomes reveal marked differences in the adaptive evolution between orangutan species

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MATTLE-GREMINGER, Maja P., Tugce BILGIN SONAY, Alexander NATER, Marc PYBUS, Tariq DESAI, Guillem DE VALLES, Ferran CASALS, Aylwyn SCALLY, Jaume BERTRANPETIT, Michael KRÜTZEN, 2018. Genomes reveal marked differences in the adaptive evolution between orangutan species. In: Genome Biology. 19(1), 193. ISSN 1465-6906. eISSN 1474-760X. Available under: doi: 10.1186/s13059-018-1562-6

@article{MattleGreminger2018-11-15Genom-45503, title={Genomes reveal marked differences in the adaptive evolution between orangutan species}, year={2018}, doi={10.1186/s13059-018-1562-6}, number={1}, volume={19}, issn={1465-6906}, journal={Genome Biology}, author={Mattle-Greminger, Maja P. and Bilgin Sonay, Tugce and Nater, Alexander and Pybus, Marc and Desai, Tariq and de Valles, Guillem and Casals, Ferran and Scally, Aylwyn and Bertranpetit, Jaume and Krützen, Michael}, note={Article Number: 193} }

Krützen, Michael de Valles, Guillem Scally, Aylwyn 2019-03-18T14:27:40Z Nater, Alexander Bertranpetit, Jaume Mattle-Greminger, Maja P. 2018-11-15 Krützen, Michael Bilgin Sonay, Tugce Desai, Tariq de Valles, Guillem Bilgin Sonay, Tugce Casals, Ferran Pybus, Marc Background<br />Integrating demography and adaptive evolution is pivotal to understanding the evolutionary history and conservation of great apes. However, little is known about the adaptive evolution of our closest relatives, in particular if and to what extent adaptions to environmental differences have occurred. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing data from critically endangered orangutans from North Sumatra (Pongo abelii) and Borneo (P. pygmaeus) to investigate adaptive responses of each species to environmental differences during the Pleistocene.<br /><br />Results<br />Taking into account the markedly disparate demographic histories of each species after their split ~ 1 Ma ago, we show that persistent environmental differences on each island had a strong impact on the adaptive evolution of the genus Pongo. Across a range of tests for positive selection, we find a consistent pattern of between-island and species differences. In the more productive Sumatran environment, the most notable signals of positive selection involve genes linked to brain and neuronal development, learning, and glucose metabolism. On Borneo, however, positive selection comprised genes involved in lipid metabolism, as well as cardiac and muscle activities.<br /><br />Conclusions<br />We find strikingly different sets of genes appearing to have evolved under strong positive selection in each species. In Sumatran orangutans, selection patterns were congruent with well-documented cognitive and behavioral differences between the species, such as a larger and more complex cultural repertoire and higher degrees of sociality. However, in Bornean orangutans, selective responses to fluctuating environmental conditions appear to have produced physiological adaptations to generally lower and temporally more unpredictable food supplies. Desai, Tariq Genomes reveal marked differences in the adaptive evolution between orangutan species terms-of-use Scally, Aylwyn Pybus, Marc Casals, Ferran Bertranpetit, Jaume Mattle-Greminger, Maja P. eng Nater, Alexander 2019-03-18T14:27:40Z

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