Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotic isophthalate by the fermenting bacterium Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans

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The ISME Journal. 2019, 13(5), pp. 1252-1268. ISSN 1751-7362. eISSN 1751-7370. Available under: doi: 10.1038/s41396-019-0348-5
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Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans is a syntrophically fermenting bacterium that can degrade isophthalate (3-carboxybenzoate). It is a xenobiotic compound which has accumulated in the environment for more than 50 years due to its global industrial usage and can cause negative effects on the environment. Isophthalate degradation by the strictly anaerobic S. aromaticivorans was investigated to advance our understanding of the degradation of xenobiotics introduced into nature, and to identify enzymes that might have ecological significance for bioremediation. Differential proteome analysis of isophthalate- vs benzoate-grown cells revealed over 400 differentially expressed proteins of which only four were unique to isophthalate-grown cells. The isophthalate-induced proteins include a phenylacetate:CoA ligase, a UbiD-like decarboxylase, a UbiX-like flavin prenyltransferase, and a hypothetical protein. These proteins are encoded by genes forming a single gene cluster that putatively codes for anaerobic conversion of isophthalate to benzoyl-CoA. Subsequently, benzoyl-CoA is metabolized by the enzymes of the anaerobic benzoate degradation pathway that were identified in the proteomic analysis. In vitro enzyme assays with cell-free extracts of isophthalate-grown cells indicated that isophthalate is activated to isophthalyl-CoA by an ATP-dependent isophthalate:CoA ligase (IPCL), and subsequently decarboxylated to benzoyl-CoA by a UbiD family isophthalyl-CoA decarboxylase (IPCD) that requires a prenylated flavin mononucleotide (prFMN) cofactor supplied by UbiX to effect decarboxylation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IPCD is a novel member of the functionally diverse UbiD family (de)carboxylases. Homologs of the IPCD encoding genes are found in several other bacteria, such as aromatic compound-degrading denitrifiers, marine sulfate-reducers, and methanogenic communities in a terephthalate-degrading reactor. These results suggest that metabolic strategies adapted for degradation of isophthalate and other phthalate are conserved between microorganisms that are involved in the anaerobic degradation of environmentally relevant aromatic compounds.

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ISO 690JUNGHARE, Madan, Dieter SPITELLER, Bernhard SCHINK, 2019. Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotic isophthalate by the fermenting bacterium Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans. In: The ISME Journal. 2019, 13(5), pp. 1252-1268. ISSN 1751-7362. eISSN 1751-7370. Available under: doi: 10.1038/s41396-019-0348-5
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@article{Junghare2019-05Anaer-44680,
  year={2019},
  doi={10.1038/s41396-019-0348-5},
  title={Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotic isophthalate by the fermenting bacterium Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans},
  number={5},
  volume={13},
  issn={1751-7362},
  journal={The ISME Journal},
  pages={1252--1268},
  author={Junghare, Madan and Spiteller, Dieter and Schink, Bernhard}
}
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