Rice Paddy Nitrospirae Carry and Express Genes Related to Sulfate Respiration: Proposal of the New Genus "Candidatus Sulfobium"

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2018
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Seifert, Jana
Stingl, Ulrich
Anantharaman, Karthik
von Bergen, Martin
Cavalca, Lucia
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Applied and environmental microbiology. 2018, 84(5), e02224-17. ISSN 0099-2240. eISSN 1098-5336. Available under: doi: 10.1128/AEM.02224-17
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Nitrospirae spp. distantly related to thermophilic, sulfate-reducingThermodesulfovibriospecies are regularly observed in environmental surveys of anoxic marine and freshwater habitats. Here we present a metaproteogenomic analysis ofNitrospiraebacterium Nbg-4 as a representative of this clade. Its genome was assembled from replicated metagenomes of rice paddy soil that was used to grow rice in the presence and absence of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). Nbg-4 encoded the full pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and showed expression of this pathway in gypsum-amended anoxic bulk soil as revealed by parallel metaproteomics. In addition, Nbg-4 encoded the full pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), with expression of its first step being detected in bulk soil without gypsum amendment. The relative abundances of Nbg-4 were similar under both treatments, indicating that Nbg-4 maintained stable populations while shifting its energy metabolism. Whether Nbg-4 is a strict sulfate reducer or can couple sulfur oxidation to DNRA by operating the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in reverse could not be resolved. Further genome reconstruction revealed the potential to utilize butyrate, formate, H2, or acetate as an electron donor; the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway was expressed under both treatments. Comparison to publicly availableNitrospiraegenome bins revealed the pathway for dissimilatory sulfate reduction also in relatedNitrospiraerecovered from groundwater. Subsequent phylogenomics showed that such microorganisms form a novel genus within theNitrospirae, with Nbg-4 as a representative species. Based on the widespread occurrence of this novel genus, we propose for Nbg-4 the name "CandidatusSulfobium mesophilum," gen. nov., sp. nov.IMPORTANCERice paddies are indispensable for the food supply but are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane. If it were not counterbalanced by cryptic sulfur cycling, methane emission from rice paddy fields would be even higher. However, the microorganisms involved in this sulfur cycling are little understood. By using an environmental systems biology approach with Italian rice paddy soil, we could retrieve the population genome of a novel member of the phylumNitrospiraeThis microorganism encoded the full pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and expressed it in anoxic paddy soil under sulfate-enriched conditions. Phylogenomics and comparison to the results of environmental surveys showed that such microorganisms are actually widespread in freshwater and marine environments. At the same time, they represent an undiscovered genus within the little-explored phylumNitrospiraeOur results will be important for the design of enrichment strategies and postgenomic studies to further understanding of the contribution of these novelNitrospiraespp. to the global sulfur cycle.

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ISO 690ZECCHIN, Sarah, Ralf C. MUELLER, Jana SEIFERT, Ulrich STINGL, Karthik ANANTHARAMAN, Martin VON BERGEN, Lucia CAVALCA, Michael PESTER, 2018. Rice Paddy Nitrospirae Carry and Express Genes Related to Sulfate Respiration: Proposal of the New Genus "Candidatus Sulfobium". In: Applied and environmental microbiology. 2018, 84(5), e02224-17. ISSN 0099-2240. eISSN 1098-5336. Available under: doi: 10.1128/AEM.02224-17
BibTex
@article{Zecchin2018Paddy-42280,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.1128/AEM.02224-17},
  title={Rice Paddy Nitrospirae Carry and Express Genes Related to Sulfate Respiration: Proposal of the New Genus "Candidatus Sulfobium"},
  number={5},
  volume={84},
  issn={0099-2240},
  journal={Applied and environmental microbiology},
  author={Zecchin, Sarah and Mueller, Ralf C. and Seifert, Jana and Stingl, Ulrich and Anantharaman, Karthik and von Bergen, Martin and Cavalca, Lucia and Pester, Michael},
  note={Article Number: e02224-17}
}
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