The Interface of Volunteer Work and Paid Work : Benefits of Volunteering for Working Life

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Schnittstelle Ehrenamt und Erwerbsarbeit,Nutzen vom ehrenamtlichen Engagement für das Arbeitsleben
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Zusammenfassung

Increasingly, psychologists are dealing with the research question of how different life domains are positively related to each other. While the focus is currently on the interface of family and work (e.g., theories and studies on the positive relationship between family engagement and work engagement; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Grzywacz et al., 2006; Rohtbard, 2001), until now the interface of volunteer work and paid work has rarely been scrutinized. However, there is empirical evidence (Kirchmeyer, 1992a, 1992b; Ruderman et al., 2002) for positive relationships between volunteering and paid work. The goal of this dissertation was, hence, to examine whether volunteer work engagement during leisure time benefits well-being and performance at work. Based on theoretical considerations on the relationships between different life domains (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Voydanoff, 2001), main and moderator effects of volunteering on well-being and performance at work were focused on. Drawing on theory and research on recovery (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005; Hobfoll, 1989; Hobfoll & Shirom, 2001; Meijman & Mulder, 1998; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007), as well as on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), it was further examined whether volunteering is related to positive non-work experiences and whether these non-work experiences account for the main effects of volunteering on well-being and performance at work. Positive non-work experiences included the recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work, mastery, and community (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007), as well as the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Indicators of well-being at work included positive and negative affect and work engagement, while indicators of performance at work included task performance and active listening.
The dissertation encompasses four empirical studies. Study 1 was a four-week study, while Studies 2, 3, and 4 were diary studies done over the course of one or two working weeks.
The relationship between volunteer work engagement during the weekend and work engagement and active listening during the following working week was the focus of Study 1. One hundred and fifty-nine participants were surveyed over the course of four working weeks. In a survey taken on Monday morning, they indicated whether they had volunteered during the weekend; in a survey taken on Friday afternoon, they indicated their work engagement and active listening at work with respect to the working week. The results of multilevel analyses showed a positive relationship between volunteer work during the weekend and work engagement during the following working week, as well as a positive relationship between volunteer work during the weekend and active listening during the following working week.
Study 2 investigated the relationships between volunteer work engagement and the recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work, mastery, and community in the evening. In a diary study conducted over the course of a single working week, 166 participants were asked to indicate before going to bed daily the amount of time they had spent that day on volunteer work activities and the level of the three recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work, mastery, and community. The results of multilevel analyses revealed a positive relationship between the amount of time spent on volunteer work activities and mastery experiences, as well as a positive relationship between the amount of time spent on volunteer work activities and community experiences.
Study 3 examined the relationship between volunteer work engagement and the recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work and mastery in the evening, as well as the relationship between volunteer work engagement and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in the evening. Furthermore, it was examined whether these positive non-work experiences are related to positive and negative affect, task performance and active listening during the following working day. In a diary study over the course of two working weeks, 105 participants filled out a questionnaire each night before going to bed, indicating the amount of time spent on volunteer work, the level of their recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work and mastery, as well as their level of need satisfaction. In a daily questionnaire filled out after work, participants indicated positive and negative affect at work, task performance, and active listening at work. The results of multilevel analyses and multilevel structural equation modeling confirmed that there are positive relationships between the amount of time spent on volunteering, psychological detachment from work, mastery experiences, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Furthermore, volunteering is negatively related to negative affect during the following working day, as well as positively related to active listening during the following working day. Both indirect effects are mediated by need satisfaction.
Finally, Study 4 looked at whether volunteering buffered the negative relationship between work stressors and positive affect at work, as well as the negative relationship between work stressors and active listening at work during the following day. Work stressors included time pressure and situational constraints. For this purpose, a diary study with 51 participants was conducted over the course of one working week. In a survey before going to bed, participants indicated the amount of time spent on volunteer work activities in the evening. In an after-work survey on the next day, they listed work stressors, positive affect, and active listening referring to the working day. The results of multilevel analyses revealed that volunteering in the evening moderates the negative relationship between situational constraints and positive affect, and the relationship between situational constraints and active listening during the following working day. After evenings on which participants engaged in volunteer work activities, situational constraints are not associated with positive affect or active listening at work. However, after evenings without volunteering both relationships are negative.
Altogether, the results showed positive relationships, in terms of main and moderator effects, between volunteering during leisure time and well-being and performance at work. Furthermore, the results suggested that the non-work experience of the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which is positively associated with volunteering, acts as a mediator of some of the positive relationships between volunteering during leisure time and well-being and performance at work. In this sense, the results supplemented existing research on the interfaces between life domains and suggested the inclusion of the domain of volunteering in the literature on positive relationships between life domains.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache

Zunehmend beschäftigen sich Psychologen mit der Fragestellung, welche positiven Verbindungen es zwischen verschiedenen Lebensbereichen gibt. Während der Fokus aktuell auf der Schnittselle Familie und Erwerbsleben liegt (z.B. Theorien und Studien zum positiven Zusammenhang zwischen Engagement im Familienbereich und Engagement im Erwerbsleben; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Grzywacz, Carlson, Kacmar, & Wayne, 2007; Rothbard, 2001), ist die Schnittstelle Ehrenamt und Erwerbsleben bis jetzt kaum erforscht. Nichtsdestotrotz gibt es empirische Hinweise (Kirchmeyer, 1992a, 1992b; Ruderman, Ohlott, Panzer, & King, 2002) dafür, dass auch Ehrenamt und Erwerbsarbeit in einem positiven Zusammenhang stehen können. Ziel dieser Dissertation war es daher, zu untersuchen, ob ehrenamtliches Engagement in der Freizeit bereichernd für Wohlbefinden und Leistung am Arbeitsplatz sein kann. Basierend auf theoretischen Arbeiten zu Zusammenhängen zwischen verschiedenen Lebensbereichen (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Voydanoff, 2001) wurde untersucht, ob es Haupt- und Moderatoreffekte von ehrenamtlichem Engagement in der Freizeit auf Wohlbefinden und Leistung bei der Arbeit gibt. Unter Einbeziehung von Theorie und Forschung zur Erholung (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005; Hobfoll, 1989; Hobfoll & Shirom, 2001; Meijman & Mulder, 1998; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007) und der Theorie der Selbstbestimmung (Deci & Ryan, 2000) wurde zudem überprüft, mit welchen positiven Freizeiterfahrungen ehrenamtliches Engagement in der Freizeit zusammenhängt und ob diese Freizeiterfahrungen Haupteffekte von ehrenamtlichem Engagement auf Wohlbefinden und Leistung bei der Arbeit erklären können. Positive Erfahrungen in der Freizeit umfassten die Erholungserfahrungen Abschalten von der Arbeit, Meistern von Herausforderungen und Erleben von Gemeinschaft (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007) sowie die Befriedigung von psychologischen Grundbedürfnissen (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Als Indikatoren von Wohlbefinden bei der Arbeit wurden positiver und negativer Affekt bei der Arbeit sowie Arbeitsengagement erfasst, als Indikatoren von Leistung bei der Arbeit wurden Aufgabenleistung und aktives Zuhören erfasst.
Die Dissertation umfasst insgesamt vier empirische Studien. Studie 1 wurde als eine vierwöchige Untersuchung durchgeführt, die Studien 2, 3 und 4 wurden als Tagebuchstudien von ein bis zwei Wochen Länge realisiert.
Im Fokus von Studie 1 stand der Zusammenhang zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement am Wochenende und Arbeitsengagement sowie aktivem Zuhören in der darauf folgenden Arbeitswoche. Dazu wurden 159 Teilnehmer vier Wochen lang befragt. In einem Fragebogen am Montagmorgen wurden die Teilnehmer zum ehrenamtlichen Engagement am Wochenende befragt, in einem Fragebogen am Freitagabend machten sie Angaben zum Arbeitsengagement und aktivem Zuhören in Bezug auf die Arbeitswoche. Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen zeigten einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement am Wochenende und Arbeitsengagement in der darauf folgenden Arbeitswoche wie auch einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement am Wochenende und aktivem Zuhören in der darauf folgenden Arbeitswoche.
In Studie 2 wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement und den Erholungserfahrungen Abschalten von der Arbeit, Meistern von Herausforderungen und dem Erleben von Gemeinschaft am Abend untersucht. In einer einwöchigen Tagebuchstudie wurden dazu 166 Teilnehmer jeden Tag abends vor dem Zu-Bett-Gehen zum Zeitaufwand für ehrenamtliche Aktivitäten sowie zu den Erholungserfahrungen Abschalten von der Arbeit, dem Meistern von Herausforderungen und dem Erleben von Gemeinschaft befragt. Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen zeigten einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen dem Zeitaufwand für ehrenamtliches Engagement und dem Meistern von Herausforderungen wie auch einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen dem Zeitaufwand für ehrenamtliche Aktivitäten und dem Erleben von Gemeinschaft.
In Studie 3 wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement und den Erholungserfahrungen Abschalten von der Arbeit und Meistern von Herausforderungen am Abend wie auch der Zusammenhang zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement und der Befriedigung der psychologischen Grundbedürfnisse am Abend untersucht. Weiterhin wurde überprüft, ob diese positiven Erfahrungen außerhalb der Arbeit mit positivem und negativem Affekt wie auch mit Aufgabenleistung und aktivem Zuhören am nächsten Arbeitstag zusammenhängen. Dazu wurde eine zweiwöchige Tagebuchstudie mit 105 Teilnehmern durchgeführt, bei der diese täglich einen Fragebogen vor dem Zu-Bett-Gehen mit Angaben zum Zeitaufwand für ehrenamtliche Aktivitäten, Abschalten von der Arbeit, dem Meistern von Herausforderungen sowie der Befriedigung der psychologischen Grundbedürfnisse ausfüllten. In einem täglichen Fragebogen nach der Arbeit machten sie Angaben zu positivem und negativem Affekt, Aufgabenleistung und aktivem Zuhören bei der Arbeit. Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen und Mehrebenenstrukturgleichungsmodellen zeigten, dass ehrenamtliches Engagement positiv mit Abschalten von der Arbeit, dem Meistern von Herausforderungen sowie der Befriedigung der psychologischen Grundbedürfnisse zusammenhängt. Weiterhin zeigten die Ergebnisse, dass ehrenamtliches Engagement am Abend indirekt negativ mit negativem Affekt wie auch indirekt positiv mit aktivem Zuhören am nächsten Arbeitstag zusammenhängt. Beide indirekten Effekte werden vermittelt durch die Befriedigung der psychologischen Grundbedürfnisse.
In Studie 4 wurde untersucht, ob ehrenamtliches Engagement den negativen Zusammenhang zwischen Arbeitsstressoren und positivem Affekt bei der Arbeit wie auch den negativen Zusammenhang zwischen Arbeitsstressoren und aktivem Zuhören am nächsten Tag puffert. Als Arbeitsstressoren wurden Zeitdruck und arbeitsorganisatorische Stressoren erhoben. Es wurde eine einwöchige Tagebuchstudie mit 51 Teilnehmern durchgeführt. In einem Fragebogen vor dem Zu-Bett-Gehen machten die Teilnehmer Angaben zum ehrenamtlichen Engagement am Abend. In einem Fragebogen nach der Arbeit am darauf folgenden Arbeitstag machten sie Angaben zu Arbeitsstressoren sowie zum positivem Affekt und aktivem Zuhören bei der Arbeit. Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen zeigten, dass ehrenamtliches Engagement am Abend den negativen Zusammenhang zwischen arbeitsorganisatorischen Problemen und positivem Affekt wie auch den negativen Zusammenhang zwischen arbeitsorganisatorischen Problemen und aktivem Zuhören am nächsten Arbeitstag moderiert. Nach Abenden, an denen die Teilnehmer ehrenamtlich aktiv waren, gibt es keinen Zusammenhang zwischen arbeitsorganisatorischen Problemen und positivem Affekt wie auch keinen Zusammenhang zwischen arbeitsorganisatorischen Problemen und aktivem Zuhören. Nach Abenden ohne ehrenamtliches Engagement dagegen sind beide Zusammenhänge negativ.
Insgesamt zeigten die Ergebnisse positive Zusammenhänge in Form von Haupt- und Moderatoreffekten zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement in der Freizeit und Wohlbefinden und Leistung am Arbeitsplatz. Weiterhin ließen die Ergebnisse vermuten, dass die Freizeiterfahrung Befriedigung von psychologischen Grundbedürfnissen, die im positiven Zusammenhang mit ehrenamtlichem Engagement steht, einige der positiven Zusammenhänge zwischen ehrenamtlichem Engagement in der Freizeit und Wohlbefinden und Leistung am Arbeitsplatz vermittelt. In diesem Sinne erweiterten die Ergebnisse existierende Forschung zu Schnittstellen zwischen Lebensbereichen und legten nahe, dass der Bereich Ehrenamt in die Literatur zu positiven Zusammenhängen zwischen Lebensbereichen integriert werden sollte.

Fachgebiet (DDC)
150 Psychologie
Schlagwörter
ehrenamtliches Engagement, Freiwilligenarbeit, Arbeit und Ehrenamt, Grundbedürfnisse, work and non-work, volunteer work, volunteering, recovery, interface of volunteer work and paid work
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Zitieren
ISO 690MOJZA, Eva J., 2008. The Interface of Volunteer Work and Paid Work : Benefits of Volunteering for Working Life [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz
BibTex
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  year={2008},
  title={The Interface of Volunteer Work and Paid Work : Benefits of Volunteering for Working Life},
  author={Mojza, Eva J.},
  address={Konstanz},
  school={Universität Konstanz}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Increasingly, psychologists are dealing with the research question of how different life domains are positively related to each other. While the focus is currently on the interface of family and work (e.g., theories and studies on the positive relationship between family engagement and work engagement; Greenhaus &amp; Powell, 2006; Grzywacz et al., 2006; Rohtbard, 2001), until now the interface of volunteer work and paid work has rarely been scrutinized. However, there is empirical evidence (Kirchmeyer, 1992a, 1992b; Ruderman et al., 2002) for positive relationships between volunteering and paid work. The goal of this dissertation was, hence, to examine whether volunteer work engagement during leisure time benefits well-being and performance at work. Based on theoretical considerations on the relationships between different life domains (Greenhaus &amp; Powell, 2006; Voydanoff, 2001), main and moderator effects of volunteering on well-being and performance at work were focused on. Drawing on theory and research on recovery (Fritz &amp; Sonnentag, 2005; Hobfoll, 1989; Hobfoll &amp; Shirom, 2001; Meijman &amp; Mulder, 1998; Sonnentag &amp; Fritz, 2007), as well as on self-determination theory (Deci &amp; Ryan, 2000), it was further examined whether volunteering is related to positive non-work experiences and whether these non-work experiences account for the main effects of volunteering on well-being and performance at work. Positive non-work experiences included the recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work, mastery, and community (Fritz &amp; Sonnentag, 2005; Sonnentag &amp; Fritz, 2007), as well as the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (Deci &amp; Ryan, 2000). Indicators of well-being at work included positive and negative affect and work engagement, while indicators of performance at work included task performance and active listening.&lt;br /&gt;The dissertation encompasses four empirical studies. Study 1 was a four-week study, while Studies 2, 3, and 4 were diary studies done over the course of one or two working weeks.&lt;br /&gt;The relationship between volunteer work engagement during the weekend and work engagement and active listening during the following working week was the focus of Study 1. One hundred and fifty-nine participants were surveyed over the course of four working weeks. In a survey taken on Monday morning, they indicated whether they had volunteered during the weekend; in a survey taken on Friday afternoon, they indicated their work engagement and active listening at work with respect to the working week. The results of multilevel analyses showed a positive relationship between volunteer work during the weekend and work engagement during the following working week, as well as a positive relationship between volunteer work during the weekend and active listening during the following working week.&lt;br /&gt;Study 2 investigated the relationships between volunteer work engagement and the recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work, mastery, and community in the evening. In a diary study conducted over the course of a single working week, 166 participants were asked to indicate before going to bed daily the amount of time they had spent that day on volunteer work activities and the level of the three recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work, mastery, and community. The results of multilevel analyses revealed a positive relationship between the amount of time spent on volunteer work activities and mastery experiences, as well as a positive relationship between the amount of time spent on volunteer work activities and community experiences.&lt;br /&gt;Study 3 examined the relationship between volunteer work engagement and the recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work and mastery in the evening, as well as the relationship between volunteer work engagement and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in the evening. Furthermore, it was examined whether these positive non-work experiences are related to positive and negative affect, task performance and active listening during the following working day. In a diary study over the course of two working weeks, 105 participants filled out a questionnaire each night before going to bed, indicating the amount of time spent on volunteer work, the level of their recovery experiences of psychological detachment from work and mastery, as well as their level of need satisfaction. In a daily questionnaire filled out after work, participants indicated positive and negative affect at work, task performance, and active listening at work. The results of multilevel analyses and multilevel structural equation modeling confirmed that there are positive relationships between the amount of time spent on volunteering, psychological detachment from work, mastery experiences, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Furthermore, volunteering is negatively related to negative affect during the following working day, as well as positively related to active listening during the following working day. Both indirect effects are mediated by need satisfaction.&lt;br /&gt;Finally, Study 4 looked at whether volunteering buffered the negative relationship between work stressors and positive affect at work, as well as the negative relationship between work stressors and active listening at work during the following day. Work stressors included time pressure and situational constraints. For this purpose, a diary study with 51 participants was conducted over the course of one working week. In a survey before going to bed, participants indicated the amount of time spent on volunteer work activities in the evening. In an after-work survey on the next day, they listed work stressors, positive affect, and active listening referring to the working day. The results of multilevel analyses revealed that volunteering in the evening moderates the negative relationship between situational constraints and positive affect, and the relationship between situational constraints and active listening during the following working day. After evenings on which participants engaged in volunteer work activities, situational constraints are not associated with positive affect or active listening at work. However, after evenings without volunteering both relationships are negative.&lt;br /&gt;Altogether, the results showed positive relationships, in terms of main and moderator effects, between volunteering during leisure time and well-being and performance at work. Furthermore, the results suggested that the non-work experience of the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which is positively associated with volunteering, acts as a mediator of some of the positive relationships between volunteering during leisure time and well-being and performance at work. In this sense, the results supplemented existing research on the interfaces between life domains and suggested the inclusion of the domain of volunteering in the literature on positive relationships between life domains.</dcterms:abstract>
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