Phylogenetic diversity and environment form assembly rules for Arctic diatom genera : A study on recent and ancient sedimentary DNA

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2020
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Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen R.
Pestryakova, Luidmila A.
Epp, Laura S.
Herzschuh, Ulrike
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Journal of Biogeography. Wiley. 2020, 47(5), pp. 1166-1179. ISSN 0305-0270. eISSN 1365-2699. Available under: doi: 10.1111/jbi.13786
Zusammenfassung

Aim
This study investigates taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in diatom genera to evaluate assembly rules for eukaryotic microbes across the Siberian tree line. We first analysed how phylogenetic distance relates to taxonomic richness and turnover. Second, we used relatedness indices to evaluate if environmental filtering or competition influences the assemblies in space and through time. Third, we used distance‐based ordination to test which environmental variables shape diatom turnover.

Location
Yakutia and Taymyria, Russia: we sampled 78 surface sediments and a sediment core, extending to 7,000 years before present, to capture the forest–tundra transition in space and time respectively.

Taxon
Arctic freshwater diatoms.

Methods
We applied metabarcoding to retrieve diatom diversity from surface and core sedimentary DNA. The taxonomic assignment binned sequence types (lineages) into genera and created taxonomic (abundance of lineages within different genera) and phylogenetic datasets (phylogenetic distances of lineages within different genera).

Results
Contrary to our expectations, we find a unimodal relationship between phylogenetic distance and richness in diatom genera. We discern a positive relationship between phylogenetic distance and taxonomic turnover in spatially and temporally distributed diatom genera. Furthermore, we reveal positive relatedness indices in diatom genera across the spatial environmental gradient and predominantly in time slices at a single location, with very few exceptions assuming effects of competition. Distance‐based ordination of taxonomic and phylogenetic turnover indicates that lake environment variables, like HCO3 and water depth, largely explain diatom turnover.

Main conclusion
Phylogenetic and abiotic assembly rules are important in understanding the regional assembly of diatom genera across lakes in the Siberian tree line ecotone. Using a space—time approach we are able to exclude the influence of geography and elucidate that lake environmental variables primarily shape the assemblies. We conclude that some diatom genera have greater capabilities to adapt to environmental changes, whereas others will be putatively replaced or lost due to the displacement of the Arctic tundra biome under recent global warming.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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ISO 690STOOF-LEICHSENRING, Kathleen R., Luidmila A. PESTRYAKOVA, Laura S. EPP, Ulrike HERZSCHUH, 2020. Phylogenetic diversity and environment form assembly rules for Arctic diatom genera : A study on recent and ancient sedimentary DNA. In: Journal of Biogeography. Wiley. 2020, 47(5), pp. 1166-1179. ISSN 0305-0270. eISSN 1365-2699. Available under: doi: 10.1111/jbi.13786
BibTex
@article{StoofLeichsenring2020-05Phylo-48638,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.1111/jbi.13786},
  title={Phylogenetic diversity and environment form assembly rules for Arctic diatom genera : A study on recent and ancient sedimentary DNA},
  number={5},
  volume={47},
  issn={0305-0270},
  journal={Journal of Biogeography},
  pages={1166--1179},
  author={Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen R. and Pestryakova, Luidmila A. and Epp, Laura S. and Herzschuh, Ulrike}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Aim&lt;br /&gt;This study investigates taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in diatom genera to evaluate assembly rules for eukaryotic microbes across the Siberian tree line. We first analysed how phylogenetic distance relates to taxonomic richness and turnover. Second, we used relatedness indices to evaluate if environmental filtering or competition influences the assemblies in space and through time. Third, we used distance‐based ordination to test which environmental variables shape diatom turnover.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Location&lt;br /&gt;Yakutia and Taymyria, Russia: we sampled 78 surface sediments and a sediment core, extending to 7,000 years before present, to capture the forest–tundra transition in space and time respectively.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Taxon&lt;br /&gt;Arctic freshwater diatoms.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Methods&lt;br /&gt;We applied metabarcoding to retrieve diatom diversity from surface and core sedimentary DNA. The taxonomic assignment binned sequence types (lineages) into genera and created taxonomic (abundance of lineages within different genera) and phylogenetic datasets (phylogenetic distances of lineages within different genera).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Results&lt;br /&gt;Contrary to our expectations, we find a unimodal relationship between phylogenetic distance and richness in diatom genera. We discern a positive relationship between phylogenetic distance and taxonomic turnover in spatially and temporally distributed diatom genera. Furthermore, we reveal positive relatedness indices in diatom genera across the spatial environmental gradient and predominantly in time slices at a single location, with very few exceptions assuming effects of competition. Distance‐based ordination of taxonomic and phylogenetic turnover indicates that lake environment variables, like HCO&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;&lt;sup&gt;−&lt;/sup&gt; and water depth, largely explain diatom turnover.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Main conclusion&lt;br /&gt;Phylogenetic and abiotic assembly rules are important in understanding the regional assembly of diatom genera across lakes in the Siberian tree line ecotone. Using a space—time approach we are able to exclude the influence of geography and elucidate that lake environmental variables primarily shape the assemblies. We conclude that some diatom genera have greater capabilities to adapt to environmental changes, whereas others will be putatively replaced or lost due to the displacement of the Arctic tundra biome under recent global warming.</dcterms:abstract>
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