Calcium in ciliated protozoa : sources, regulation, and calcium-regulated cell functions

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2001
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Klauke, Norbert
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TP C4: Microdomain calcium signalling in a secretory protozoan cell: Identification and functional localization of membrane proteins in cortical calcium stores
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International Review of Cytologie. 2001, 201, pp. 115-208
Zusammenfassung

In ciliates, a variety of processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g., exocytosis, endocytosis, ciliary beat, cell contraction, and nuclear migration. Differential microdomain regulation may occur by activation of specific channels in different cell regions (e.g., voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cilia), by local, nonpropagated activation of subplasmalemmal Ca stores (alveolar sacs), by different sensitivity thresholds, and eventually by interplay with additional second messengers (cilia). During stimulus-secretion coupling, Ca2+ as the only known second messenger operates at approximately 5 microM, whereby mobilization from alveolar sacs is superimposed by "store-operated Ca2+ influx" (SOC), to drive exocytotic and endocytotic membrane fusion. (Content discharge requires binding of extracellular Ca2+ to some secretory proteins.) Ca2+ homeostasis is reestablished by binding to cytosolic Ca2+-binding proteins (e.g., calmodulin), by sequestration into mitochondria (perhaps by Ca2+ uniporter) and into endoplasmic reticulum and alveolar sacs (with a SERCA-type pump), and by extrusion via a plasmalemmal Ca2+ pump and a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Comparison of free vs total concentration, [Ca2+] vs [Ca], during activation, using time-resolved fluorochrome analysis and X-ray microanalysis, respectively, reveals that altogether activation requires a calcium flux that is orders of magnitude larger than that expected from the [Ca2+] actually required for local activation.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
Fachgebiet (DDC)
570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
Schlagwörter
Calcium, Ca2+-ATPase, Ca2+ pump, Cilia, Ciliates, Exocytosis, Protozoa, Secretion
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ISO 690PLATTNER, Helmut, Norbert KLAUKE, 2001. Calcium in ciliated protozoa : sources, regulation, and calcium-regulated cell functions. In: International Review of Cytologie. 2001, 201, pp. 115-208
BibTex
@article{Plattner2001Calci-7670,
  year={2001},
  title={Calcium in ciliated protozoa : sources, regulation, and calcium-regulated cell functions},
  volume={201},
  journal={International Review of Cytologie},
  pages={115--208},
  author={Plattner, Helmut and Klauke, Norbert}
}
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