Switching from astrocytic neuroprotection to neurodegeneration by cytokine stimulation

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Archives of Toxicology. 2017, 91(1), pp. 231-246. ISSN 0003-9446. eISSN 1432-0738. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1702-2
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Astrocytes, the largest cell population in the human brain, are powerful inflammatory effectors. Several studies have examined the interaction of activated astrocytes with neurons, but little is known yet about human neurotoxicity under such situations and about strategies of neuronal rescue. To address this question, immortalized murine astrocytes (IMA) were combined with human LUHMES neurons and stimulated with an inflammatory (TNF, IL-1) cytokine mix (CM). Neurotoxicity was studied both in co-cultures and in monocultures after transfer of conditioned medium from activated IMA. Interventions with >20 drugs were used to profile the model system. Control IMA supported neurons and protected them from neurotoxicants. Inflammatory activation reduced this protection, and prolonged exposure of co-cultures to CM triggered neurotoxicity. Neither the added cytokines nor the release of NO from astrocytes were involved in this neurodegeneration. The neurotoxicity-mediating effect of IMA was faithfully reproduced by human astrocytes. Moreover, glia-dependent toxicity was also observed, when IMA cultures were stimulated with CM, and the culture medium was transferred to neurons. Such neurotoxicity was prevented when astrocytes were treated by p38 kinase inhibitors or dexamethasone, whereas such compounds had no effect when added to neurons. Conversely, treatment of neurons with five different drugs, including resveratrol and CEP1347, prevented toxicity of astrocyte supernatants. Thus, the sequential IMA-LUHMES neuroinflammation model is suitable for separate profiling of both glial-directed and directly neuroprotective strategies. Moreover, direct evaluation in co-cultures of the same cells allows for testing of therapeutic effectiveness in more complex settings, in which astrocytes affect pharmacological properties of neurons.

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ISO 690EFREMOVA, Liudmila, Petra KRANASTER, Martina ADAM, Simon GUTBIER, Stefan SCHILDKNECHT, Marcel LEIST, 2017. Switching from astrocytic neuroprotection to neurodegeneration by cytokine stimulation. In: Archives of Toxicology. 2017, 91(1), pp. 231-246. ISSN 0003-9446. eISSN 1432-0738. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1702-2
BibTex
@article{Efremova2017-01Switc-33739,
  year={2017},
  doi={10.1007/s00204-016-1702-2},
  title={Switching from astrocytic neuroprotection to neurodegeneration by cytokine stimulation},
  number={1},
  volume={91},
  issn={0003-9446},
  journal={Archives of Toxicology},
  pages={231--246},
  author={Efremova, Liudmila and Kranaster, Petra and Adam, Martina and Gutbier, Simon and Schildknecht, Stefan and Leist, Marcel}
}
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