Learning shapes the development of migratory behavior

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2024
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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. 2024, 121(12), e2306389121. ISSN 0027-8424. eISSN 1091-6490. Available under: doi: 10.1073/pnas.2306389121
Zusammenfassung

How animals refine migratory behavior over their lifetime (i.e., the ontogeny of migration) is an enduring question with important implications for predicting the adaptive capacity of migrants in a changing world. Yet, our inability to monitor the movements of individuals from early life onward has limited our understanding of the ontogeny of migration. The exploration–refinement hypothesis posits that learning shapes the ontogeny of migration in long-lived species, resulting in greater exploratory behavior early in life followed by more rapid and direct movement during later life. We test the exploration–refinement hypothesis by examining how white storks ( Ciconia ciconia ) balance energy, time, and information as they develop and refine migratory behavior during the first years of life. Here, we show that young birds reduce energy expenditure during flight while also increasing information gain by exploring new places during migration. As the birds age and gain more experience, older individuals stop exploring new places and instead move more quickly and directly, resulting in greater energy expenditure during migratory flight. During spring migration, individuals innovated novel shortcuts during the transition from early life into adulthood, suggesting a reliance on spatial memory acquired through learning. These incremental refinements in migratory behavior provide support for the importance of individual learning within a lifetime in the ontogeny of long-distance migration.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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ontogeny of migration, fidelity, timing, routes, energetics
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ISO 690AIKENS, Ellen O., Elham NOURANI, Wolfgang FIEDLER, Martin WIKELSKI, Andrea FLACK, 2024. Learning shapes the development of migratory behavior. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. 2024, 121(12), e2306389121. ISSN 0027-8424. eISSN 1091-6490. Available under: doi: 10.1073/pnas.2306389121
BibTex
@article{Aikens2024-03-19Learn-69620,
  year={2024},
  doi={10.1073/pnas.2306389121},
  title={Learning shapes the development of migratory behavior},
  number={12},
  volume={121},
  issn={0027-8424},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  author={Aikens, Ellen O. and Nourani, Elham and Fiedler, Wolfgang and Wikelski, Martin and Flack, Andrea},
  note={Article Number: e2306389121}
}
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