Risk factors for smoking in adolescence : evidence from a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

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2024
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Altwicker-Hámori, Szilvia
Ackermann, Kurt Alexander
Furchheim, Pia
Dratva, Julia
Truninger, Dominique
Müller, Steffen
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BMC Public Health. Springer. 2024, 24, 1165. eISSN 1471-2458. Available under: doi: 10.1186/s12889-024-18695-4
Zusammenfassung

Background
Cigarette smoking during adolescence is a major public health concern with far-reaching health implications. Adolescents who smoke are at an increased risk of developing long-term health problems and are more likely to continue smoking into adulthood. Therefore, it is vital to identify and understand the risk factors that contribute to adolescent smoking – which in turn facilitate the development of targeted prevention and intervention programs.

Methods
Data was drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted between October and December 2021, encompassing adolescents of adolescents aged 14 to 19 residing in Switzerland (n = 2,683). Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to explore which demographic, household, behavioural and psychographic factors are associated with current smoking status.

Results
The regression results showed higher odds of smoking for female respondents (OR 1.39; p-value 0.007); older adolescents (OR 1.30; p-value < 0.001); those living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (OR 1.39; p-value 0.021), in suburban areas (OR 1.35; p-value 0.023) and with a smoker in the same household (OR 2.41; p-value < 0.001); adolescents consuming alcohol (OR 4.10; p-value < 0.001), cannabis products (OR 6.72; p-value < 0.001) and hookah (OR 5.07; p-value < 0.001) at least once a month; respondents not engaging in sports (OR 1.90; p-value < 0.001) or music (OR 1.42; p-value 0.031) as top five leisure activities and those experiencing high stress levels at home (OR 1.74; p-value < 0.001). Adolescents with high scores in health awareness (OR 0.33; p-value < 0.001), on the relational self-esteem scale (OR 0.78; p-value 0.054) and on the general well-being scale (OR 0.52; p-value 0.022) were less likely to smoke than their counterparts with lower scores. High risk-seeking was associated with higher odds of smoking (OR 2.15; p-value < 0.001).

Conclusions
Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive approach at both individual and institutional levels to reduce smoking rates in adolescents. More specifically, a holistic strategy that encompasses adolescents, families, schools and policymakers ranging from strengthening adolescents’ self-esteem, smoking cessation support for parents, to increasing engagement in musical and physical activities, and enhancing health awareness in the school curriculum.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
Fachgebiet (DDC)
150 Psychologie
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Adolescence, Smoking behaviour, Smoking prevention, Switzerland
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ISO 690ALTWICKER-HÁMORI, Szilvia, Kurt Alexander ACKERMANN, Pia FURCHHEIM, Julia DRATVA, Dominique TRUNINGER, Steffen MÜLLER, Frank WIEBER, 2024. Risk factors for smoking in adolescence : evidence from a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland. In: BMC Public Health. Springer. 2024, 24, 1165. eISSN 1471-2458. Available under: doi: 10.1186/s12889-024-18695-4
BibTex
@article{AltwickerHamori2024facto-70059,
  year={2024},
  doi={10.1186/s12889-024-18695-4},
  title={Risk factors for smoking in adolescence : evidence from a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland},
  volume={24},
  journal={BMC Public Health},
  author={Altwicker-Hámori, Szilvia and Ackermann, Kurt Alexander and Furchheim, Pia and Dratva, Julia and Truninger, Dominique and Müller, Steffen and Wieber, Frank},
  note={Article Number: 1165}
}
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Cigarette smoking during adolescence is a major public health concern with far-reaching health implications. Adolescents who smoke are at an increased risk of developing long-term health problems and are more likely to continue smoking into adulthood. Therefore, it is vital to identify and understand the risk factors that contribute to adolescent smoking – which in turn facilitate the development of targeted prevention and intervention programs.

Methods&lt;br /&gt;
Data was drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted between October and December 2021, encompassing adolescents of adolescents aged 14 to 19 residing in Switzerland (n = 2,683). Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to explore which demographic, household, behavioural and psychographic factors are associated with current smoking status.

Results&lt;br /&gt;
The regression results showed higher odds of smoking for female respondents (OR 1.39; p-value 0.007); older adolescents (OR 1.30; p-value &lt; 0.001); those living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (OR 1.39; p-value 0.021), in suburban areas (OR 1.35; p-value 0.023) and with a smoker in the same household (OR 2.41; p-value &lt; 0.001); adolescents consuming alcohol (OR 4.10; p-value &lt; 0.001), cannabis products (OR 6.72; p-value &lt; 0.001) and hookah (OR 5.07; p-value &lt; 0.001) at least once a month; respondents not engaging in sports (OR 1.90; p-value &lt; 0.001) or music (OR 1.42; p-value 0.031) as top five leisure activities and those experiencing high stress levels at home (OR 1.74; p-value &lt; 0.001). Adolescents with high scores in health awareness (OR 0.33; p-value &lt; 0.001), on the relational self-esteem scale (OR 0.78; p-value 0.054) and on the general well-being scale (OR 0.52; p-value 0.022) were less likely to smoke than their counterparts with lower scores. High risk-seeking was associated with higher odds of smoking (OR 2.15; p-value &lt; 0.001).

Conclusions&lt;br /&gt;
Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive approach at both individual and institutional levels to reduce smoking rates in adolescents. More specifically, a holistic strategy that encompasses adolescents, families, schools and policymakers ranging from strengthening adolescents’ self-esteem, smoking cessation support for parents, to increasing engagement in musical and physical activities, and enhancing health awareness in the school curriculum.</dcterms:abstract>
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