Kohärente nichtlineare Materiewellendynamik - Helle atomare Solitonen


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EIERMANN, Bernd, 2004. Kohärente nichtlineare Materiewellendynamik - Helle atomare Solitonen

@phdthesis{Eiermann2004Kohar-8877, title={Kohärente nichtlineare Materiewellendynamik - Helle atomare Solitonen}, year={2004}, author={Eiermann, Bernd}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

Coherent Nonlinear Matter Wave Dynamics - Bright Atomic Solitons Eiermann, Bernd 2011-03-24T17:51:16Z 2011-03-24T17:51:16Z application/pdf Eiermann, Bernd Kohärente nichtlineare Materiewellendynamik - Helle atomare Solitonen deu 2004 The objective of this PhD thesis was the examination of the dynamical behaviour of coherent wave packets realised by Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) out of 87Rubidium atoms. Their dynamics is mainly affected by linear dispersion due to momentum uncertainty and by nonlinear atomic interaction due to s-wave scattering. The primary objective was the realisation of bright atomic solitons, which represent density distributions with time-independent shape. They only exist if the effects of dispersion and nonlinearity cancel out each other. For 87Rb atoms with repulsive interaction this requires the dispersion of the ensemble to be anomalous. The dispersion of the wave packet can be influenced in sign and in magnitude by superimposing a periodic potential and by changing the quasi-momentum of the atoms.<br /><br />For that purpose an apparatus to produce Bose-Einstein condesates as source of coherent matter waves was build up and characterised. The phase transition was observed as well in magnetic as in optical dipole traps. Experiments related to the dynamic of wave packets were conducted in a twodimensional optical trap retaining the atoms against gravity and allowing them to propagate along the axis of the trap. The periodic potential to influence the dispersion results from two counterpropagating interfering laser beams superimposed to the dipole trap.<br /><br />A first set of experiments demonstrated the possibility to influence the linear dispersion of matter waves by changing the quasi-momentum of the atoms in a periodic potential. In particular wave packets with anomalous dispersion were prepared at the brillouin zone edge in quasi-momentum space. Their behaviour is equivalent to particles with a negative effective mass, which was be confirmed by reversing the time evolution of an expanding wave packet.<br /><br />This demonstration of a negative effective mass of wave packets was an essential prerequisite for the creation of atomic solitons. Their formation was observed having prepared Bose-Einstein condensates of only 1000 atoms. A further set of systematic experiments was performed confirming the solitonic behaviour of the wave packets. This was the first realisation of atomic solitons with repulsive interaction also called Gap-Solitons. deposit-license

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