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From diapause to sexual reproduction : evolutionary ecology of the Daphnia Hybrid Complex from Lake Constance

From diapause to sexual reproduction : evolutionary ecology of the Daphnia Hybrid Complex from Lake Constance


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JANKOWSKI, Thomas, 2002. From diapause to sexual reproduction : evolutionary ecology of the Daphnia Hybrid Complex from Lake Constance

@phdthesis{Jankowski2002diapa-7571, title={From diapause to sexual reproduction : evolutionary ecology of the Daphnia Hybrid Complex from Lake Constance}, year={2002}, author={Jankowski, Thomas}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

From diapause to sexual reproduction : evolutionary ecology of the Daphnia Hybrid Complex from Lake Constance eng 2011-03-24T17:35:28Z deposit-license This thesis deals with the interplay between sexual reproduction, hybridization and diapause and their ecological and evolutionary consequences for large lake Daphnia populations. Although the Daphnia population of Lake Constance was intensively investigated during the last century this thesis showed the first time a detailed analysis of temporal species specific differences in allocation to sexual reproduction and the importance of diapause. The results presented showed that the inclusion of these important life-history components is not only essential for the understanding for temporary pond, but also for permanent lake Daphnia populations. Therefore, this study cover the whole life-cycle of daphnids. This thesis starts with the parthenogenetic phase, continues with sexual reproduction and diapause and ends with the recruitment of new parthenogenetical females. Seasonal dynamics of the abundance, sexual reproduction and genetic architecture in a Daphnia hyalina-galeata hybrid complex were studied in the large and deep Lake Constance (chapter 2). We found evidence for the occurrence of first and second order hybridization. The study revealed strong differences between the parental species regarding not only their seasonal dynamics, genetic architecture and diversity, but also their sexual reproductive behaviour. The overwintering D. hyalina showed low genetic diversity, no genetic differentiation during the season, and reproduced sexually in autumn, whereas D. galeata reached higher levels of genetic diversity, reproduced sexually in early summer, and exhibited changes in genetic structure during the season, but was only present from spring to autumn. Within all variables studied, F1 and F2 hybrids showed an intermediate pattern, whereas proposed backcross hybrids were more similar to their respective parentals. These differences in phenotype as well as significant differences in pairwise Fst values between parentals suggest that gene flow seems to be relative low in the Lake Constance hybrid system. The study presents evidence for unidirectional introgression by backcrossing from D. galeata to D. hyalina and found a decrease in at least one of the proposed introgressed alleles in the hyalina-backcross with ongoing season. The findings suggest allochronic differentiation within this hybrid population and different microevolutionary trajectories of the parental species, which will be discussed in light of the ongoing reoligotrophication process of Lake Constance. Seasonal dynamics in allocation to and timing of sexual reproduction were studied over three years in a Daphnia hyalina-galeata hybrid population of large and deep Lake Constance (chapter 3). These results were compared to a multispecies mesocosm experiment carried out under natural conditions. In all three years we observed two distinct periods of sexual activity. In early summer, no D. hyalina sexual females were found and 90 % of the sexual females and males were D. galeata. In autumn, however, no D. galeata sexual females were found and more than 60 % of the sexual females and males were D. hyalina. The D. hyalina-galeata hybrid were sexual during both periods. Despite these seasonal differences all three taxa produced ephippia and males during an enclosure experiment conducted in July 2001, i.e., a time when no sexual activity was observed in the lake. The parentals showed in the lake as well as in the enclosures similar allocation to sexual females and males. In contrast, the hybrid showed a much higher allocation to sexual females during the enclosure experiment. In the field, D. galeata contributed the most to ephippia production. D. hyalina ephippia production was relative sparse, and the hybrid showed, at least in the lake population, an intermediate allocation. Our findings indicate a species x environment interaction for the induction of and allocation to sexual activity. This will be discussed in the light of different overwintering strategies and their consequences for the maintenance of genetic variation within populations. Chapter 4 deals with the egg-bank of the Daphnia population. Resting eggs of planktonic organisms from datable sediment cores are increasingly used to reconstruct historical information on the abundance, size, genetic composition and microevolution of planktonic organisms. All these studies rely on the up to now mostly untested assumption that the resting egg bank in the sediment will indeed allow an accurate reconstruction of past populations. Here the study tests the performance of the egg bank to reconstruct historical data of the Daphnia population of Lake Constance, which has been thoroughly investigated throughout the last century. The study shows that it is possible to reproduce variability in abundance, size, and genetic composition of Daphnia galeata within a period of approximately two decades. Furthermore, resting egg data allowed to reconstruct the timing of the invasion of Daphnia galeata into Lake Constance. However, the egg bank> failed to reconstruct a) the dynamics of the native Daphnia species of Lake Constance, D. hyalina, and b) the relative importance of the two Daphnia species. The study present evidence that the latter is because the two species differ in the relative importance and timing of sexual reproductive activity and in the buoyancy of ephippia. The failure to reconstruct the long-term dynamics of D. hyalina in the lake is most probably due to a change in sexual activity and possibly also of ephippia buoyancy in the course of eutrophication. Chapter 5 deals with species specific differences in recruitment. The recruitment from resting-stages is a common feature of many planktic organisms in temporary ponds as well as in large lakes. Since the cues for breaking diapause, i.e., increases in temperature and light intensity, decrease with lake depth, we hypothesized that the littoral zone plays an important role in the recruitment of zooplankton in large lake populations. We investigated the recruitment of Daphnia hyalinagaleata in the large lake, Lake Constance. In laboratory, we examined emergence under 6 different temperature regimes, 5 different light intensity regimes and 6 different day-length regimes and compared these results with a 2-year survey of in-situ emergence patterns using emergence traps placed at varying depths. Additionally, we investigated the temporal and spatial ephippia distribution in Lake Constance using 114 core samples taken regularly from January and December and from depths of 1m to 220 m. The results from both our laboratory aand the in-situ emergence experiments indicate that emergence begins when temperatures exceed storage temperature (in Lake Constance this is between 4°C to 5°C), was restricted to a short period in February/March and was higher in deeper traps. Neither light intensity nor day-length had a significant effect on total emergence or on timing of emergence in the lab. In situ, we found no D. hyalina hatching from profundal sediments, but D. hyalina made up to 25% of littoral hatchlings. Ephippia densities increased with depth. In littoral sediments, ephippia were only found in the time period between ephippia production in early summer and late autumn. From these findings we conclude that the littoral might be more important for the recruitment of D. hyalina, however, the main recruitment of D. galeata seems to take place in rather deeper strata. The presented studies revealed evidence not only for the importance of sexual activity for species specific differences in the seasonal pattern and seasonal genetic architecture, but also for species specific differences in the deposition of and emergence from resting stages. Furthermore, the results revealed evidence that sexual activity might not be constant, but changed over time, possibly influenced by eutrophication and competition. The received picture highlights the importance of sexual reproduction, diapause and hybridization and the linkage of the seasonal pattern and long-term development for the understanding of the processes within large lake Daphnia populations. 2002 Von Diapause zur sexuellen Reproduktion: Evolutionsökologie des Daphnia-Hybridkomplexes vom Bodensee 2011-03-24T17:35:28Z Jankowski, Thomas application/pdf Jankowski, Thomas

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