'Believe' is Strong but Subjective : Experimental Evidence from Hedging

Lade...
Vorschaubild
Dateien
Zu diesem Dokument gibt es keine Dateien.
Datum
2021
Herausgeber:innen
Kontakt
ISSN der Zeitschrift
Electronic ISSN
ISBN
Bibliografische Daten
Verlag
Schriftenreihe
Auflagebezeichnung
ArXiv-ID
Internationale Patentnummer
Angaben zur Forschungsförderung
Projekt
Open Access-Veröffentlichung
Open Access Bookpart
Sammlungen
Core Facility der Universität Konstanz
Gesperrt bis
Titel in einer weiteren Sprache
Forschungsvorhaben
Organisationseinheiten
Zeitschriftenheft
Publikationstyp
Beitrag zu einem Konferenzband
Publikationsstatus
Published
Erschienen in
GROSZ, Patrick, ed. and others. Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 25. Konstanz: University of Konstanz, 2021, pp. 480-497. eISSN 2629-6055. Available under: doi: 10.18148/sub/2021.v25i0.950
Zusammenfassung

This paper contributes to the debate concerning whether the attitude verb believe has a weak or a strong semantics. According to Hawthorne et al. (2016), believe is weak and akin to the probability operator likely, typically receiving an “agent finds it more likely than not” interpretation. Alternatively, Koev (2019) proposes that believe conveys high certainty but qualifies this certainty as subjective or lacking evidence, in contrast with modals that convey high objective certainty, like sure (see also Lyons 1977; Kratzer 1981; Nuyts 2001; Papafragou 2006; Portner 2009). We focus on the use of believe as a hedge (e.g. I believe the Giants will win, but I’m not sure they will) as allegedly the most convincing argument for the weak view, and argue that, in fact, it favors the strong-but-subjective view. We show experimentally that the availability of the hedging use of believe is affected by certain grammatical and discourse factors. Experiment 1 reveals that participants rate hedging sentences with combinations of third person/past tense/embedded features as less natural than canonical first person/present tense/main clause forms. In turn, Experiment 2 reveals that hedging sentences with at-issue prejacents are judged as more natural than sentences in which the belief component is at-issue. The observed variability posits a challenge to the weak view, which establishes a purely logical contrast in modal strength between likelihood vs. certainty. However, it is in line with the strong-but-subjective view, which establishes a contrast in modal content between certainty without evidence vs. certainty with evidence and predicts a more restricted distribution of the hedging reading.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
Fachgebiet (DDC)
400 Sprachwissenschaft, Linguistik
Schlagwörter
belief, modality, strength, gradability, subjectivity, experimentation.
Konferenz
Sinn und Bedeutung 25, 3. Sept. 2020 - 9. Sept. 2020, London
Rezension
undefined / . - undefined, undefined
Zitieren
ISO 690KOEV, Todor, Cory BILL, Maryam MOHAMMADI, 2021. 'Believe' is Strong but Subjective : Experimental Evidence from Hedging. Sinn und Bedeutung 25. London, 3. Sept. 2020 - 9. Sept. 2020. In: GROSZ, Patrick, ed. and others. Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 25. Konstanz: University of Konstanz, 2021, pp. 480-497. eISSN 2629-6055. Available under: doi: 10.18148/sub/2021.v25i0.950
BibTex
@inproceedings{Koev2021Belie-57904,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.18148/sub/2021.v25i0.950},
  title={'Believe' is Strong but Subjective : Experimental Evidence from Hedging},
  publisher={University of Konstanz},
  address={Konstanz},
  booktitle={Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 25},
  pages={480--497},
  editor={Grosz, Patrick},
  author={Koev, Todor and Bill, Cory and Mohammadi, Maryam}
}
RDF
<rdf:RDF
    xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
    xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
    xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/"
    xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#"
    xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
    xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" > 
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/57904">
    <dc:creator>Bill, Cory</dc:creator>
    <dc:contributor>Mohammadi, Maryam</dc:contributor>
    <dc:contributor>Koev, Todor</dc:contributor>
    <dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2022-06-30T12:36:27Z</dcterms:available>
    <dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/45"/>
    <dcterms:issued>2021</dcterms:issued>
    <dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2022-06-30T12:36:27Z</dc:date>
    <dspace:hasBitstream rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/57904/1/Koev_2-equuiqx8rq33.pdf"/>
    <dcterms:title>'Believe' is Strong but Subjective : Experimental Evidence from Hedging</dcterms:title>
    <void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource="http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql"/>
    <foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/"/>
    <dc:creator>Mohammadi, Maryam</dc:creator>
    <dcterms:hasPart rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/57904/1/Koev_2-equuiqx8rq33.pdf"/>
    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">This paper contributes to the debate concerning whether the attitude verb believe has a weak or a strong semantics. According to Hawthorne et al. (2016), believe is weak and akin to the probability operator likely, typically receiving an “agent finds it more likely than not” interpretation. Alternatively, Koev (2019) proposes that believe conveys high certainty but qualifies this certainty as subjective or lacking evidence, in contrast with modals that convey high objective certainty, like sure (see also Lyons 1977; Kratzer 1981; Nuyts 2001; Papafragou 2006; Portner 2009). We focus on the use of believe as a hedge (e.g. I believe the Giants will win, but I’m not sure they will) as allegedly the most convincing argument for the weak view, and argue that, in fact, it favors the strong-but-subjective view. We show experimentally that the availability of the hedging use of believe is affected by certain grammatical and discourse factors. Experiment 1 reveals that participants rate hedging sentences with combinations of third person/past tense/embedded features as less natural than canonical first person/present tense/main clause forms. In turn, Experiment 2 reveals that hedging sentences with at-issue prejacents are judged as more natural than sentences in which the belief component is at-issue. The observed variability posits a challenge to the weak view, which establishes a purely logical contrast in modal strength between likelihood vs. certainty. However, it is in line with the strong-but-subjective view, which establishes a contrast in modal content between certainty without evidence vs. certainty with evidence and predicts a more restricted distribution of the hedging reading.</dcterms:abstract>
    <dc:creator>Koev, Todor</dc:creator>
    <dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/45"/>
    <bibo:uri rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/57904"/>
    <dc:contributor>Bill, Cory</dc:contributor>
    <dcterms:rights rdf:resource="https://rightsstatements.org/page/InC/1.0/"/>
    <dc:rights>terms-of-use</dc:rights>
    <dc:language>eng</dc:language>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
Interner Vermerk
xmlui.Submission.submit.DescribeStep.inputForms.label.kops_note_fromSubmitter
Kontakt
URL der Originalveröffentl.
Prüfdatum der URL
Prüfungsdatum der Dissertation
Finanzierungsart
Kommentar zur Publikation
Allianzlizenz
Corresponding Authors der Uni Konstanz vorhanden
Internationale Co-Autor:innen
Universitätsbibliographie
Ja
Begutachtet
Diese Publikation teilen