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Second Harmonic Generation in Germanium Quantum Wells for Nonlinear Silicon Photonics

Second Harmonic Generation in Germanium Quantum Wells for Nonlinear Silicon Photonics

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FRIGERIO, Jacopo, Chiara CIANO, Joel KUTTRUFF, Andrea MANCINI, Andrea BALLABIO, Daniel CHRASTINA, Jonas ALLERBECK, Daniele BRIDA, Michele VIRGILIO, Michele ORTOLANI, 2021. Second Harmonic Generation in Germanium Quantum Wells for Nonlinear Silicon Photonics. In: ACS Photonics. ACS Publications. 8(12), pp. 3573-3582. eISSN 2330-4022. Available under: doi: 10.1021/acsphotonics.1c01162

@article{Frigerio2021-12-15Secon-57043, title={Second Harmonic Generation in Germanium Quantum Wells for Nonlinear Silicon Photonics}, year={2021}, doi={10.1021/acsphotonics.1c01162}, number={12}, volume={8}, journal={ACS Photonics}, pages={3573--3582}, author={Frigerio, Jacopo and Ciano, Chiara and Kuttruff, Joel and Mancini, Andrea and Ballabio, Andrea and Chrastina, Daniel and Allerbeck, Jonas and Brida, Daniele and Virgilio, Michele and Ortolani, Michele} }

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a direct measure of the strength of second-order nonlinear optical effects, which also include frequency mixing and parametric oscillations. Natural and artificial materials with broken center-of-inversion symmetry in their unit cell display high SHG efficiency, however, the silicon-foundry compatible group IV semiconductors (Si, Ge) are centrosymmetric, thereby preventing full integration of second-order nonlinearity in silicon photonics platforms. Here we demonstrate strong SHG in Ge-rich quantum wells grown on Si wafers. Unlike Si-rich epilayers, Ge-rich epilayers allow for waveguiding on a Si substrate. The symmetry breaking is artificially realized with a pair of asymmetric coupled quantum wells (ACQW), in which three of the quantum-confined states are equidistant in energy, resulting in a double resonance for SHG. Laser spectroscopy experiments demonstrate a giant second-order nonlinearity at mid-infrared pump wavelengths between 9 and 12 μm. Leveraging on the strong intersubband dipoles, the nonlinear susceptibility χ<sup>(2)</sup> almost reaches 10<sup>5</sup> pm/V, 4 orders of magnitude larger than bulk nonlinear materials for which, by the Miller’s rule, the range of 10 pm/V is the norm. Ballabio, Andrea Kuttruff, Joel 2022-03-29T10:49:17Z Chrastina, Daniel Ballabio, Andrea Second Harmonic Generation in Germanium Quantum Wells for Nonlinear Silicon Photonics Frigerio, Jacopo Allerbeck, Jonas Mancini, Andrea Frigerio, Jacopo Ciano, Chiara eng Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Ortolani, Michele Ciano, Chiara Mancini, Andrea Virgilio, Michele 2021-12-15 2022-03-29T10:49:17Z Allerbeck, Jonas Chrastina, Daniel Kuttruff, Joel Brida, Daniele Brida, Daniele Virgilio, Michele Ortolani, Michele

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