Journal article:
Nanosized superparamagnetic precipitates in cobalt-doped ZnO

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Date
2008
Editors
Opel, Matthias
Nielsen, Karl-Wilhelm
Bauer, Sebastian
Cezar, Júlio C.
Schmeisser, Dieter
Simon, Jürgen
Mader, Werner
Gross, Rudolf
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Abstract
The existence of semiconductors exhibiting long-range ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature still is controversial. One particularly important issue is the presence of secondary magnetic phases such as clusters, segregations, etc. These are often tedious to detect, leading to contradictory interpretations. We show that in our cobalt doped ZnO films grown homoepitaxially on single crystalline ZnO substrates the magnetism unambiguously stems from metallic cobalt nano-inclusions. The magnetic behavior was investigated by SQUID magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and AC susceptibility measurements. The results were correlated to a detailed microstructural analysis based on high resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electron-spectroscopic imaging. No evidence for carrier mediated ferromagnetic exchange between diluted cobalt moments was found. In contrast, the combined data provide clear evidence that the observed room temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior originates from nanometer sized superparamagnetic metallic cobalt precipitates.
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530 Physics
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The European Physical Journal B ; 63 (2008), 4. - pp. 437-444. - Springer. - ISSN 1434-6028. - eISSN 1434-6036
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ISO 690OPEL, Matthias, Karl-Wilhelm NIELSEN, Sebastian BAUER, Sebastian T. B. GÖNNENWEIN, Júlio C. CEZAR, Dieter SCHMEISSER, Jürgen SIMON, Werner MADER, Rudolf GROSS, 2008. Nanosized superparamagnetic precipitates in cobalt-doped ZnO. In: The European Physical Journal B. Springer. 63(4), pp. 437-444. ISSN 1434-6028. eISSN 1434-6036. Available under: doi: 10.1140/epjb/e2008-00252-4
BibTex
@article{Opel2008Nanos-52528,
  year={2008},
  doi={10.1140/epjb/e2008-00252-4},
  title={Nanosized superparamagnetic precipitates in cobalt-doped ZnO},
  number={4},
  volume={63},
  issn={1434-6028},
  journal={The European Physical Journal B},
  pages={437--444},
  author={Opel, Matthias and Nielsen, Karl-Wilhelm and Bauer, Sebastian and Gönnenwein, Sebastian T. B. and Cezar, Júlio C. and Schmeisser, Dieter and Simon, Jürgen and Mader, Werner and Gross, Rudolf}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">The existence of semiconductors exhibiting long-range ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature still is controversial. One particularly important issue is the presence of secondary magnetic phases such as clusters, segregations, etc. These are often tedious to detect, leading to contradictory interpretations. We show that in our cobalt doped ZnO films grown homoepitaxially on single crystalline ZnO substrates the magnetism unambiguously stems from metallic cobalt nano-inclusions. The magnetic behavior was investigated by SQUID magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and AC susceptibility measurements. The results were correlated to a detailed microstructural analysis based on high resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electron-spectroscopic imaging. No evidence for carrier mediated ferromagnetic exchange between diluted cobalt moments was found. In contrast, the combined data provide clear evidence that the observed room temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior originates from nanometer sized superparamagnetic metallic cobalt precipitates.</dcterms:abstract>
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