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An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Health and Performance

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2020
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Abstract
Life expectancy is steadily increasing in modern societies, and so are noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and cancer, accounting for more than 70% of all deaths globally. The costs associated with these diseases are enormous, but it has been estimated that the majority of these noncommunicable diseases are preventable. In addition to an unhealthy diet, tobacco use, and harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity is a key risk factor. Consequently, physical activity is a logical remedy, and in this chapter an overview of the numerous beneficial effects of physical activity on health and performance is given.The chapter is divided into three parts: First, the basics of physical activity and exercise are discussed, for instance exercise classification, exercise intensity operationalization, energy supply, and the acute effects of exercise such as blood flow redistribution and increased cardiac output. In the second part, the effects of exercise on physical performance are summarized. Specifically, it is discussed how endurance, strength, power, and balance can be improved. This discussion includes recommendations regarding the type, intensity, and duration of the exercise leading to improvements in one of these aspects of physical performance, as well as the mechanisms causing these adaptations. In the third part, the beneficial effects of physical activity on physical and mental health are outlined, with particular attention to cardiovascular diseases, the metabolic syndrome, musculoskeletal diseases, mood, anxiety, depression, and dementia.It can be concluded that with adequate programming, regular physical activity is an effective way to improve physical performance, improve physical and mental health, and reduce the risk factors for many noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and depression. In contrast to medication, physical exercise has no negative side effects, costs very little, and targets many health issues at once. If the multitude of beneficial effects of regular exercise were to be combined in a single low-cost drug, it would be prescribed for almost all types of physical and mental health issues.
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Subject (DDC)
796 Sport
Keywords
Physical activity, Physical performanc,e Exercise, Medicine, Public health
Published in
Physical Exercise for Human Health / Xiao, Junjie (ed.). - Singapore : Springer, 2020. - (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ; 1228). - pp. 3-22. - ISBN 978-981-15-1791-4
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ISO 690KRAMER, Andreas, 2020. An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Health and Performance. In: XIAO, Junjie, ed.. Physical Exercise for Human Health. Singapore:Springer, pp. 3-22. ISBN 978-981-15-1791-4. Available under: doi: 10.1007/978-981-15-1792-1_1
BibTex
@incollection{Kramer2020Overv-52293,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.1007/978-981-15-1792-1_1},
  title={An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Health and Performance},
  number={1228},
  isbn={978-981-15-1791-4},
  publisher={Springer},
  address={Singapore},
  series={Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology},
  booktitle={Physical Exercise for Human Health},
  pages={3--22},
  editor={Xiao, Junjie},
  author={Kramer, Andreas}
}
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