Journal article:
The 3×1 Programme and criminal violence in Mexico

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2020
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Abstract
Are levels of criminal violence lower where emigrants collaborate with the state authorities in the funding and provision of public goods and services? In this article, I examine the causal effect on violence levels in the municipalities participating in Mexico's Three‐for‐One (3×1) Programme for Migrants. Using municipal‐level data for the period between 2001 and 2010, the analysis shows that the implementation of this programme led to an increase in violence in the municipalities in question, and that this effect is driven by the ‘war on drugs’ initiated by the Mexican government in 2006. Because cartels splinter when kingpins are captured, they look for sources of revenue other than drug smuggling. The budgetary gains obtained via the 3×1 Programme inadvertently increased the returns of extortion and directed the attention of organized criminals to the participant municipalities. The evidence highlights some of the unintended effects that the leveraging of emigrants' money may have in home countries where governments make the so‐called ‘kingpin strategy’ a centrepiece of their security strategy.
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320 Politics
Keywords
Criminal Violence, Diaspora Policies, Hometown Associations, Mexico, Migrant Transnationalism, Remittances
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Global Networks : A Journal of Transnational Affairs ; 20 (2020), 4. - pp. 625-655. - Wiley-Blackwell. - ISSN 1470-2266. - eISSN 1471-0374
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ISO 690LOPEZ GARCIA, Ana Isabel, 2020. The 3×1 Programme and criminal violence in Mexico. In: Global Networks : A Journal of Transnational Affairs. Wiley-Blackwell. 20(4), pp. 625-655. ISSN 1470-2266. eISSN 1471-0374. Available under: doi: 10.1111/glob.12248
BibTex
@article{LopezGarcia2020Progr-52242,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.1111/glob.12248},
  title={The 3×1 Programme and criminal violence in Mexico},
  number={4},
  volume={20},
  issn={1470-2266},
  journal={Global Networks : A Journal of Transnational Affairs},
  pages={625--655},
  author={Lopez Garcia, Ana Isabel}
}
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