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Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth

Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth

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ESSL, Franz, Wayne DAWSON, Holger KREFT, Jan PERGL, Petr PYŠEK, Mark VAN KLEUNEN, Patrick WEIGELT, Thomas MANG, Stefan DULLINGER, Bernd LENZNER, Dietmar MOSER, Noëlie MAUREL, Hanno SEEBENS, Anke STEIN, 2019. Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth. In: AoB PLANTS. Oxford University Press. 11(5). ISSN 2041-2851. eISSN 2041-2851. Available under: doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plz051

@article{Essl2019-10Drive-46812, title={Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth}, year={2019}, doi={10.1093/aobpla/plz051}, number={5}, volume={11}, issn={2041-2851}, journal={AoB PLANTS}, author={Essl, Franz and Dawson, Wayne and Kreft, Holger and Pergl, Jan and Pyšek, Petr and van Kleunen, Mark and Weigelt, Patrick and Mang, Thomas and Dullinger, Stefan and Lenzner, Bernd and Moser, Dietmar and Maurel, Noëlie and Seebens, Hanno and Stein, Anke} }

Biological invasions are a defining feature of the Anthropocene, but the factors that determine the spatially uneven distribution of alien plant species are still poorly understood. Here, we present the first global analysis of the effects of biogeographic factors, the physical environment and socio-economy on the richness of naturalized and invasive alien plants. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models and variation partitioning to disentangle the relative importance of individual factors, and, more broadly, of biogeography, physical environment and socio-economy. As measures of the magnitude of permanent anthropogenic additions to the regional species pool and of species with negative environmental impacts, we calculated the relative richness of naturalized (= RRN) and invasive (= RRI) alien plant species numbers adjusted for the number of native species in 838 terrestrial regions. Socio-economic factors (per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), population density, proportion of agricultural land) were more important in explaining RRI (~50 % of the explained variation) than RRN (~40 %). Warm-temperate and (sub)tropical regions have higher RRN than tropical or cooler regions. We found that socio-economic pressures are more relevant for invasive than for naturalized species richness. The expectation that the southern hemisphere is more invaded than the northern hemisphere was confirmed only for RRN on islands, but not for mainland regions nor for RRI. On average, islands have ~6-fold RRN, and >3-fold RRI compared to mainland regions. Eighty-two islands (=26 % of all islands) harbour more naturalized alien than native plants. Our findings challenge the widely held expectation that socio-economic pressures are more relevant for plant naturalization than for invasive plants. To meet international biodiversity targets and halt the detrimental consequences of plant invasions, it is essential to disrupt the connection between socio-economic development and plant invasions by improving pathway management, early detection and rapid response. Pyšek, Petr Pyšek, Petr 2019-09-10T12:25:44Z Weigelt, Patrick Stein, Anke Seebens, Hanno Dullinger, Stefan Dullinger, Stefan 2019-09-10T12:25:44Z Pergl, Jan Lenzner, Bernd Essl, Franz van Kleunen, Mark Lenzner, Bernd Mang, Thomas Essl, Franz Dawson, Wayne Dawson, Wayne van Kleunen, Mark Moser, Dietmar Seebens, Hanno eng Maurel, Noëlie Weigelt, Patrick Attribution 4.0 International Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth Kreft, Holger 2019-10 Moser, Dietmar Kreft, Holger Pergl, Jan Stein, Anke Maurel, Noëlie Mang, Thomas

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