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The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

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HAWKES, Lucy A., Sivananinthaperumal BALACHANDRAN, Nyambayar BATBAYAR, Patrick J. BUTLER, Beverley CHUA, David C. DOUGLAS, Peter B. FRAPPELL, Yuansheng HOU, William K. MILSOM, Scott H. NEWMAN, Diann J. PROSSER, Ponnusamy SATHIYASELVAM, Graham R. SCOTT, John Y. TAKEKAWA, Tseveenmyadag NATSAGDORJ, Martin WIKELSKI, 2013. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences. 280(1750), 20122114. ISSN 0962-8452. eISSN 1471-2954. Available under: doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2114

@article{Hawkes2013-01-07parad-43076, title={The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus}, year={2013}, doi={10.1098/rspb.2012.2114}, number={1750}, volume={280}, issn={0962-8452}, journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences}, author={Hawkes, Lucy A. and Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal and Batbayar, Nyambayar and Butler, Patrick J. and Chua, Beverley and Douglas, David C. and Frappell, Peter B. and Hou, Yuansheng and Milsom, William K. and Newman, Scott H. and Prosser, Diann J. and Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy and Scott, Graham R. and Takekawa, John Y. and Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag and Wikelski, Martin}, note={Article Number: 20122114} }

<rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/43076"> <dc:language>eng</dc:language> <dc:contributor>Hawkes, Lucy A.</dc:contributor> <dcterms:title>The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus</dcterms:title> <dc:contributor>Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Hou, Yuansheng</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Milsom, William K.</dc:creator> <dcterms:hasPart rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/43076/1/Hawkes_2-tqvzcy5xwk8b6.pdf"/> <dc:rights>terms-of-use</dc:rights> <dc:creator>Hawkes, Lucy A.</dc:creator> <dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2018-08-14T13:02:37Z</dc:date> <dc:creator>Chua, Beverley</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Newman, Scott H.</dc:creator> <dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/> <dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/> <void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource="http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql"/> <dcterms:rights rdf:resource="https://rightsstatements.org/page/InC/1.0/"/> <dc:contributor>Frappell, Peter B.</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Batbayar, Nyambayar</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Douglas, David C.</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal</dc:contributor> <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.</dcterms:abstract> <dc:contributor>Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Butler, Patrick J.</dc:contributor> <dcterms:issued>2013-01-07</dcterms:issued> <dspace:hasBitstream rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/43076/1/Hawkes_2-tqvzcy5xwk8b6.pdf"/> <dc:creator>Hou, Yuansheng</dc:creator> <bibo:uri rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/43076"/> <dc:contributor>Douglas, David C.</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Batbayar, Nyambayar</dc:contributor> <dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2018-08-14T13:02:37Z</dcterms:available> <dc:contributor>Wikelski, Martin</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Newman, Scott H.</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Takekawa, John Y.</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Scott, Graham R.</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Butler, Patrick J.</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Frappell, Peter B.</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Chua, Beverley</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Scott, Graham R.</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Wikelski, Martin</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Takekawa, John Y.</dc:creator> <foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/jspui"/> <dc:contributor>Milsom, William K.</dc:contributor> <dc:creator>Prosser, Diann J.</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag</dc:creator> <dc:contributor>Prosser, Diann J.</dc:contributor> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>

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