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Direct Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Frenkel Defects in Metal Halide Perovskites Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

Direct Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Frenkel Defects in Metal Halide Perovskites Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

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BIRKHOLD, Susanne T., Jake T. PRECHT, Rajiv GIRIDHARAGOPAL, Giles E. EPERON, Lukas SCHMIDT-MENDE, David S. GINGER, 2018. Direct Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Frenkel Defects in Metal Halide Perovskites Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy. In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 122(24), pp. 12633-12639. ISSN 1932-7447. eISSN 1932-7455. Available under: doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b03255

@article{Birkhold2018-06-21Direc-42767, title={Direct Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Frenkel Defects in Metal Halide Perovskites Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy}, year={2018}, doi={10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b03255}, number={24}, volume={122}, issn={1932-7447}, journal={The Journal of Physical Chemistry C}, pages={12633--12639}, author={Birkhold, Susanne T. and Precht, Jake T. and Giridharagopal, Rajiv and Eperon, Giles E. and Schmidt-Mende, Lukas and Ginger, David S.} }

Eperon, Giles E. Ion migration is seen as a primary stability concern of halide perovskite-based photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we provide experimental studies of long-distance, reversible ion migration in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI<sub>3</sub>) and formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI<sub>3</sub>) films. We use time-resolved scanning Kelvin probe microscopy on insulator-coated lateral electrodes to probe the dynamic redistribution of charged Frenkel defects over micrometer distances after application of an electric field. We combine these dynamic measurements with drift–diffusion simulations that yield self-consistent pictures of the sign, distribution, mobility, and activation energy of the associated, mobile Frenkel defects. This comprehensive approach is applied to study the impact of an organic cation on ionic mobility in metal halide perovskites, which we find to be significantly reduced in the case of FAPbI<sub>3</sub> films compared to MAPbI<sub>3</sub> films. Schmidt-Mende, Lukas Giridharagopal, Rajiv Eperon, Giles E. 2018-06-21 Birkhold, Susanne T. Schmidt-Mende, Lukas Precht, Jake T. Birkhold, Susanne T. Ginger, David S. Ginger, David S. 2018-07-04T13:29:40Z 2018-07-04T13:29:40Z Direct Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Frenkel Defects in Metal Halide Perovskites Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy Giridharagopal, Rajiv eng Precht, Jake T.

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