Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae : insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis

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2018
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Rudall, Paula J.
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PeerJ. 2018, 6, e4948. eISSN 2167-8359. Available under: doi: 10.7717/peerj.4948
Zusammenfassung

Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales). The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

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Fachgebiet (DDC)
570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Seed cone, Glyptostrobus, Teratology, Seed scale, Evolution, Bract
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ISO 690DÖRKEN, Veit, Paula J. RUDALL, 2018. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae : insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis. In: PeerJ. 2018, 6, e4948. eISSN 2167-8359. Available under: doi: 10.7717/peerj.4948
BibTex
@article{Dorken2018Under-42674,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.7717/peerj.4948},
  title={Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae : insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis},
  volume={6},
  journal={PeerJ},
  author={Dörken, Veit and Rudall, Paula J.},
  note={Article Number: e4948}
}
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