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Electrically-inactive phosphorus re-distribution during low temperature annealing

Electrically-inactive phosphorus re-distribution during low temperature annealing

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PERAL, Ana, Amanda YOUSSEF, Amir DASTGHEIB-SHIRAZI, Austin AKEY, Ian Marius PETERS, Giso HAHN, Tonio BUONASSISI, Carlos DEL CANIZO, 2018. Electrically-inactive phosphorus re-distribution during low temperature annealing. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 123(16), 161535. ISSN 0021-8979. eISSN 1089-7550. Available under: doi: 10.1063/1.5002627

@article{Peral2018Elect-42291, title={Electrically-inactive phosphorus re-distribution during low temperature annealing}, year={2018}, doi={10.1063/1.5002627}, number={16}, volume={123}, issn={0021-8979}, journal={Journal of Applied Physics}, author={Peral, Ana and Youssef, Amanda and Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir and Akey, Austin and Peters, Ian Marius and Hahn, Giso and Buonassisi, Tonio and del Canizo, Carlos}, note={Article Number: 161535} }

eng 2018 Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir terms-of-use Hahn, Giso del Canizo, Carlos Peters, Ian Marius Hahn, Giso 2018-05-09T13:12:57Z Peters, Ian Marius Akey, Austin Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir Buonassisi, Tonio Buonassisi, Tonio Peral, Ana An increased total dose of phosphorus (P dose) in the first 40 nm of a phosphorus diffused emitter has been measured after Low Temperature Annealing (LTA) at 700 °C using the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry technique. This evidence has been observed in three versions of the same emitter containing different amounts of initial phosphorus. A stepwise chemical etching of a diffused phosphorus emitter has been carried out to prepare the three types of samples. The total P dose in the first 40 nm increases during annealing by 1.4 × 10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>–2</sup> for the sample with the highly doped emitter, by 0.8 × 10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>–2</sup> in the middle-doped emitter, and by 0.5 × 10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>–2</sup> in the lowest-doped emitter. The presence of surface dislocations in the first few nanometers of the phosphorus emitter might play a role as preferential sites of local phosphorus gettering in phosphorus re-distribution, because the phosphorus gettering to the first 40 nm is lower when this region is etched stepwise. This total increase in phosphorus takes place even though the calculated electrically active phosphorus concentration shows a reduction, and the measured sheet resistance shows an increase after annealing at a low temperature. The reduced electrically active P dose is around 0.6 × 10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>–2</sup> for all the emitters. This can be explained with phosphorus-atoms diffusing towards the surface during annealing, occupying electrically inactive configurations. An atomic-scale visual local analysis is carried out with needle-shaped samples of tens of nm in diameter containing a region of the highly doped emitter before and after LTA using Atom Probe Tomography, showing phosphorus precipitates of 10 nm and less before annealing and an increased density of larger precipitates after annealing (25 nm and less). Peral, Ana Youssef, Amanda Youssef, Amanda 2018-05-09T13:12:57Z del Canizo, Carlos Akey, Austin Electrically-inactive phosphorus re-distribution during low temperature annealing

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