Boxcar detection for high-frequency modulation in stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

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Applied Physics Letters. 2018, 112(16), 161101. ISSN 0003-6951. eISSN 1077-3118. Available under: doi: 10.1063/1.5022266
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Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is an important non-linear optical technique for the investigation of unlabeled samples. The SRS signal manifests itself as a small intensity exchange between the laser pulses involved in coherent excitation of Raman modes. Usually, high-frequency modulation is applied in one pulse train, and the signal is then detected on the other pulse train via lock-in amplification. While allowing shot-noise limited detection sensitivity, lock-in detection, which corresponds to filtering the signal in the frequency domain, is not the most efficient way of using the excitation light. In this manuscript, we show that boxcar averaging, which is equivalent to temporal filtering, is better suited for the detection of low-duty-cycle signals as encountered in SRS microscopy. We demonstrate that by employing suitable gating windows, the signal-to-noise ratios achievable with lock-in detection can be realized in shorter time with boxcar averaging. Therefore, high-quality images are recorded at a faster rate and lower irradiance which is an important factor, e.g., for minimizing degradation of biological samples.

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ISO 690FIMPEL, Peter, Claudius RIEK, Lukas EBNER, Alfred LEITENSTORFER, Daniele BRIDA, Andreas ZUMBUSCH, 2018. Boxcar detection for high-frequency modulation in stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. In: Applied Physics Letters. 2018, 112(16), 161101. ISSN 0003-6951. eISSN 1077-3118. Available under: doi: 10.1063/1.5022266
BibTex
@article{Fimpel2018-04-16Boxca-42284,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.1063/1.5022266},
  title={Boxcar detection for high-frequency modulation in stimulated Raman scattering microscopy},
  number={16},
  volume={112},
  issn={0003-6951},
  journal={Applied Physics Letters},
  author={Fimpel, Peter and Riek, Claudius and Ebner, Lukas and Leitenstorfer, Alfred and Brida, Daniele and Zumbusch, Andreas},
  note={Article Number: 161101}
}
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