## Khat use in Europe : implications for European policy

2011
Klein, Axel
Warfa, Nasir
##### Series
Drugs in focus; 1/2011
##### Publication type
Working Paper/Technical Report
Published
##### Abstract
Khat leaves are cultivated in the highlands of the Horn of Africa, Southern Arabia and along the East African coast. In parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Yemen, khat leaves have been chewed for centuries for their mildly stimulating properties and are for many a regular part of social life. Traditionally, khat was used mostly by men during highly ritualised communal ‘khat parties’. Within about one hour, the user experiences physiological excitation and euphoria. This is followed by a quieter, more introvert phase, giving way to a gradual comedown, which may include restlessness, irritability and melancholia. Traditionally, culturally integrated consumption patterns occurred adjacent to production regions, inspiring artistic expression in architecture, handicraft, poetry and songs. Since the end of the 19th century, successive improvements to the transport infrastructure have opened up new khat markets. More recently, the mass migration of people from the Horn of Africa has been associated with the spread of khat usage to neighbouring countries, Europe and the rest of the world. Contemporary patterns of consumption tend to be less formal and can be more excessive. This may be due to an erosion of protective cultural factors that previously helped regulate use. Exact numbers of regular khat users on a worldwide scale do not exist, however estimates range up to 20 million.
150 Psychology
##### Cite This
ISO 690ODENWALD, Michael, Axel KLEIN, Nasir WARFA, 2011. Khat use in Europe : implications for European policy
BibTex
@techreport{Odenwald2011Europ-41408,
year={2011},
series={Drugs in focus},
title={Khat use in Europe : implications for European policy},
number={1/2011},
url={http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drugs-in-focus/khat_en},
author={Odenwald, Michael and Klein, Axel and Warfa, Nasir},
note={ISSN 1681-5157}
}

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<dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Khat leaves are cultivated in the highlands of the Horn of Africa, Southern Arabia and along the East African coast. In parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Yemen, khat leaves have been chewed for centuries for their mildly stimulating properties and are for many a regular part of social life. Traditionally, khat was used mostly by men during highly ritualised communal ‘khat parties’. Within about one hour, the user experiences physiological excitation and euphoria. This is followed by a quieter, more introvert phase, giving way to a gradual comedown, which may include restlessness, irritability and melancholia. Traditionally, culturally integrated consumption patterns occurred adjacent to production regions, inspiring artistic expression in architecture, handicraft, poetry and songs. Since the end of the 19th century, successive improvements to the transport infrastructure have opened up new khat markets. More recently, the mass migration of people from the Horn of Africa has been associated with the spread of khat usage to neighbouring countries, Europe and the rest of the world. Contemporary patterns of consumption tend to be less formal and can be more excessive. This may be due to an erosion of protective cultural factors that previously helped regulate use. Exact numbers of regular khat users on a worldwide scale do not exist, however estimates range up to 20 million.</dcterms:abstract>
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2018-02-16
ISSN 1681-5157
Yes