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Cliticization and the Evolution of Morphology : a Cross-linguistic Study on Phonology in Grammaticalization

Cliticization and the Evolution of Morphology : a Cross-linguistic Study on Phonology in Grammaticalization

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SCHIERING, René, 2005. Cliticization and the Evolution of Morphology : a Cross-linguistic Study on Phonology in Grammaticalization

@phdthesis{Schiering2005Cliti-3718, title={Cliticization and the Evolution of Morphology : a Cross-linguistic Study on Phonology in Grammaticalization}, year={2005}, author={Schiering, René}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

Schiering, René 2011-03-24T10:06:16Z Klitisierung und Morphologisierung: Eine sprachvergleichende Untersuchung zur Rolle der Phonologie in der Grammatikalisierung 2005 deposit-license 2011-03-24T10:06:16Z Cliticization and the Evolution of Morphology : a Cross-linguistic Study on Phonology in Grammaticalization application/pdf Schiering, René Within grammaticalization theory, progression on the function word > clitic > affix cline is associated with a number of interdependent morpho-syntactic, functional, and phonological processes. Drawing data from a nineteen language sample, this study aims at testing the predictions made in the literature with respect to the correlation of cliticization and erosion.<br />Cliticization cannot be described by a set of universal properties but is dependent on the overall phonological system of a language. In stress phonologies, cliticization may be accompanied by stress reduction and prosodic integration into the word stress domain. In tonal phonology, clitics come with a lexical specification for tone and are subject to regular rules of tonal sandhi which neutralize tone specifications and may change the tone. In intonation phonologies, cliticization is characterized by the loss of an intonation peak and the gradual integration into a neighboring intonation phrase. In segmental phonology, cliticization may be accompanied by structure preservation, assimilation, weakening and strengthening. These processes can apply at segments adjacent at the morpheme boundary, or may apply across whole syllables of host-clitic combinations.<br />In order to systematize the various prosodic and segmental clines encountered in cliticization, this study establishes and defends a rhythm based typology of language which relies on ten parameters in prosody, phonotactics and morphophonology and makes predicts with respect to the clustering of specific phonological properties in mora-, syllable- and stress-based languages. Tested on the basis of the nineteen language sample, six of the parameters proved reliable in evaluating linguistic rhythm. Prototypical stress-based languages are characterized by phonetically strong accent, high degrees of segmental effects of stress, high degrees of syllable complexity and the lack of length contrasts independent of stress. In this phonological climate tone systems are typically restricted and vowel harmony operates on smaller domains. Prototypical syllable-based languages, on the other hand, are characterized by phonetically weak accent, low degrees of segmental effect of stress and lower degrees of syllable complexity. In these languages, we observe unrestricted tone systems and word spanning vowel harmony. Mora-based languages, which otherwise behave like syllable-based languages, are defined by length contrasts in vowels and consonants which are independent of stress.<br />The rhythm-based typology of language allows for a number of significant predictions with respect to the distribution of the various segmental effects of cliticization. In stress-based languages, stress reduction and tone neutralization go hand in hand with vowel reduction and deletion in unstressed syllables. Since such languages exhibit a high degree of syllable complexity, junctural consonant clusters are likely and we can encounter certain processes applying in this context. However, the rhythm based typology cannot predict which process will apply, for instance whether a consonant cluster will be repaired by cluster simplification or by vowel epenthesis. Mora- and syllable-based languages, on the other hand, do not show vowel reduction and deletion in unstressed syllables. Accordingly, the unstressed vowels of clitics will be preserved or harmonized, but crucially not reduced and deleted. Due to the low degrees of syllable complexity in these languages, junctural vowel clusters and associated processes are likely. However, the rhythm based typology again cannot predict which process, for instance vowel coalescence or consonant epenthesis, will apply. Since gemination of intervocalic consonants is only found in languages with length contrasts in consonants, gemination of intervocalic consonants at clitic boundaries is most likely in mora-based languages, which are defined by this property. Ultimately, this typology predicts different pathways for the evolution of morphology in the different phonological climates. Whereas morphologization in stress-based languages is accompanied by heavy reduction and leads to subminimal morphological markers, morphologization in mora- and syllable-based languages results in polysyllabic markers due to the lack of erosion in grammaticalization.<br />The evidence compiled in this study calls for a serious reconsideration of the role of phonology in grammaticalization. Since erosion is not a universal concomitant of grammaticalization it cannot be considered a defining property. A subtler conception of grammaticalization has to incorporate the finding that associated sub processes are subject to cross linguistic variation, in our case linguistic rhythm. Accordingly, the findings of this study cast doubt on universal scenarios for language change such as the one enshrined in grammaticalization theory . eng

Dateiabrufe seit 01.10.2014 (Informationen über die Zugriffsstatistik)

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