Generating and manipulating entanglement of spins and photons

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AUER, Adrian, 2015. Generating and manipulating entanglement of spins and photons

@phdthesis{Auer2015Gener-31538, title={Generating and manipulating entanglement of spins and photons}, year={2015}, author={Auer, Adrian}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

Spins in a solid-state environment and photons are both promising physical systems regarding the implementation of qubits. Whereas electron and nuclear spins act very well as localized qubits that are able to store and process quantum information, photons are the primary candidates to transmit quantum information between distant locations. Entanglement, on the other hand, is a fundamental resource of quantum information processing enabling, e.g., secure communication over long distances. The generation and manipulation of entanglement are thus fundamental steps in order to leverage the benefits of quantum information processing. The aim of this dissertation is therefore to theoretically investigate entangling mechanisms for various physical systems.<br />A functioning source of entangled photons is a basic hardware component required for quantum communication. To this end, we study a system composed of semiconductor quantum wells inside a microcavity, known as intersubband cavity system, in which the interaction of the electronic system with the cavity field can reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. The ground state contains a finite number of photons, and we find that these photons are entangled. The amount of entanglement is quantified analytically, and maximal entanglement is found to be possible.<br />The technique of entanglement purification allows to restore maximal entanglement that has decreased, e.g. due to decoherence. Purification requires quantum memory, a role for which electron spins in electrically-defined quantum dots are well suited. However, existing purification protocols are rather unpractical in this case. Here, the concept of asymmetric bilateral two-qubit operations is introduced to purify spin entanglement by harnessing the typical interaction between electrons in neighboring quantum dots. As it turns out, this concept can be applied to a variety of qubit systems, e.g. superconducting qubits or spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.<br />The latter example offers several possibilities to implement a qubit, of which the intrinsic nitro- gen nuclear spin has proven its viability in many ways. We develop a scheme to deterministically couple two nuclear spin qubits, in which the interaction is mediated by an optical cavity. It is found that an entangling two-qubit gate, also required for universal quantum computation, can be implemented with operation times below 100 nanoseconds, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster compared to the decoherence time of the nuclear spin.<br />The verification of entanglement, which is required e.g. in entanglement-based quantum com- munication to detect an eavesdropping attack, typically involves a measurement of qubit states. Using the input-output formalism, we derive a fully quantum-mechanical model of an optical readout scheme to measure the spin state of an electron in a self-assembled quantum dot. Auer, Adrian 2015 2015-08-06T11:19:54Z 2015-08-06T11:19:54Z eng Generating and manipulating entanglement of spins and photons Auer, Adrian

Dateiabrufe seit 06.08.2015 (Informationen über die Zugriffsstatistik)

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