## The Consequences of Internal Waves for Phytoplankton Focusing on the Distribution and Production of Planktothrix rubescens

2014
Journal article
##### Published in
PLoS ONE ; 9 (2014), 8. - e104359. - eISSN 1932-6203
##### Abstract
Consequences of internal wave motion for phytoplankton and in particular for the distribution and production of the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens were investigated based on data from two field campaigns conducted in Lake Ammer during summer 2009 and 2011. In both years, P. rubescens dominated the phytoplankton community and formed a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the metalimnion. Internal wave motions caused vertical displacement of P. rubescens of up to 6 m and 10 m, respectively. Vertical displacements of isotherms and of isoconcentration lines of P. rubescens from the same depth range coincided, suggesting that P. rubescens did not or could not regulate its buoyancy to prevent wave-induced vertical displacements. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community in the epilimnion and were vertically separated from P. rubescens. The thickness of the diatom layer, but not the diatom concentrations within the layer, changed in phase with the changes in the thickness of the epilimnion caused by internal wave motions. Seiche induced vertical displacements of P. rubescens caused fluctuations in the light intensity available at the depth of the P. rubescens layer. The interplay between seiche induced vertical displacements of the P. rubescens layer and the daily cycle of incident light lead to differences in the daily mean available light intensity between lake ends by up to a factor of ∼3. As a consequence, the daily mean specific oxygen production rate of P. rubescens differed by up to a factor of ∼7 between lake ends. The horizontal differences in the specific oxygen production rate of P. rubescens were persistent over several days suggesting that the associated production of P. rubescens biomass may lead to phytoplankton patchiness. The effect of internal seiches on the spatial heterogeneity and the persistence of horizontal differences in production, however, depend on the timing and the synchronization between internal wave motion and the daily course of incident light intensity. Vertical displacements caused by internal waves could be distinguished from other factors influencing the distribution of P. rubescens (e.g. active buoyancy control, production, vertical mixing) by a temperature-based data transformation. This technique may be of general use for separating wave-induced transport from other processes (e.g. sedimentation, vertical mixing) that affect the distributions of dissolved substances and suspended particles.
##### Subject (DDC)
570 Biosciences, Biology
##### Cite This
ISO 690HINGSAMER, Peter, Frank PEETERS, Hilmar HOFMANN, 2014. The Consequences of Internal Waves for Phytoplankton Focusing on the Distribution and Production of Planktothrix rubescens. In: PLoS ONE. 9(8), e104359. eISSN 1932-6203. Available under: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104359
BibTex
@article{Hingsamer2014Conse-29001,
year={2014},
doi={10.1371/journal.pone.0104359},
title={The Consequences of Internal Waves for Phytoplankton Focusing on the Distribution and Production of Planktothrix rubescens},
number={8},
volume={9},
journal={PLoS ONE},
author={Hingsamer, Peter and Peeters, Frank and Hofmann, Hilmar},
note={Article Number: e104359}
}

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<dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Consequences of internal wave motion for phytoplankton and in particular for the distribution and production of the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens were investigated based on data from two field campaigns conducted in Lake Ammer during summer 2009 and 2011. In both years, P. rubescens dominated the phytoplankton community and formed a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the metalimnion. Internal wave motions caused vertical displacement of P. rubescens of up to 6 m and 10 m, respectively. Vertical displacements of isotherms and of isoconcentration lines of P. rubescens from the same depth range coincided, suggesting that P. rubescens did not or could not regulate its buoyancy to prevent wave-induced vertical displacements. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community in the epilimnion and were vertically separated from P. rubescens. The thickness of the diatom layer, but not the diatom concentrations within the layer, changed in phase with the changes in the thickness of the epilimnion caused by internal wave motions. Seiche induced vertical displacements of P. rubescens caused fluctuations in the light intensity available at the depth of the P. rubescens layer. The interplay between seiche induced vertical displacements of the P. rubescens layer and the daily cycle of incident light lead to differences in the daily mean available light intensity between lake ends by up to a factor of ∼3. As a consequence, the daily mean specific oxygen production rate of P. rubescens differed by up to a factor of ∼7 between lake ends. The horizontal differences in the specific oxygen production rate of P. rubescens were persistent over several days suggesting that the associated production of P. rubescens biomass may lead to phytoplankton patchiness. The effect of internal seiches on the spatial heterogeneity and the persistence of horizontal differences in production, however, depend on the timing and the synchronization between internal wave motion and the daily course of incident light intensity. Vertical displacements caused by internal waves could be distinguished from other factors influencing the distribution of P. rubescens (e.g. active buoyancy control, production, vertical mixing) by a temperature-based data transformation. This technique may be of general use for separating wave-induced transport from other processes (e.g. sedimentation, vertical mixing) that affect the distributions of dissolved substances and suspended particles.</dcterms:abstract>
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