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Structural identification and quantification of β-amyloid polypeptide-ligand interactions using affinity-mass spectrometric methods

Structural identification and quantification of β-amyloid polypeptide-ligand interactions using affinity-mass spectrometric methods


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PARASCHIV, Gabriela-Ioana, 2012. Structural identification and quantification of β-amyloid polypeptide-ligand interactions using affinity-mass spectrometric methods

@phdthesis{Paraschiv2012Struc-20151, title={Structural identification and quantification of β-amyloid polypeptide-ligand interactions using affinity-mass spectrometric methods}, year={2012}, author={Paraschiv, Gabriela-Ioana}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

2012 2012-08-20T06:27:35Z deposit-license eng Paraschiv, Gabriela-Ioana 2012-08-20T06:27:35Z Structural identification and quantification of β-amyloid polypeptide-ligand interactions using affinity-mass spectrometric methods Paraschiv, Gabriela-Ioana One of the main characteristics of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the accumulation of extracellular plaques containing aggregates of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP). A major goal of this thesis was the identification of the Aβ- epitope structure recognized by (a) single chain antibodies isolated from Llama Glama after immunization with Aβ(1-40); (b) human Cystatin C protein. Mass spectrometry has been developed in the last years as a powerful technique for the analysis of protein structures and biomolecular interactions. High mass accuracy and sensitivity, short analysis time and low sample consumption are important features of the mass spectrometric protein analysis. To obtain information on protein mixtures and to identify the structure of the molecular recognition domains, several affinity- based methods have been employed in combination with mass spectrometry. These approaches include chromatographic and electrophoretic separations, proteolytic degradation and mutations of specific amino acids. For the identification of molecular antigen recognition structures, highly efficient methods of mass spectrometry coupled with proteolytic epitope excision and extraction were developed in our laboratory. Using this methodology, the Aβ-plaque-specific epitope was identified in a previous study as the N-terminal sequence Aβ(4-10), which is also accessible in Aβ oligomers. Recently, the epitope recognized by Aβ-autoantibodies from human serum was identified as Aβ(21-37) and was shown to inhibit fibril formation.<br /><br /><br /><br />In the first part of the thesis, single chain llama anti-Aβ antibodies were characterized by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Antibodies in Camelidae (camels and llamas) are called “heavy-chain” antibodies, because the light chain and the first domain of the constant region (CH1) of the heavy chain are missing. Camelid VHHs display similar functional characteristics with respect to specificity and affinity, comparable to classical antibodies, and have favourable properties for biophysical studies, e.g. small size and high solubility and stability. To investigate whether a single chain llama antibody may function as a microantibody, the amino acid sequence was analyzed and the CDR- regions were determined according to Kabat rules. Consequently, CDR3 was selected as a potential candidate. The CDR3 peptide was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis, purified by HPLC and analyzed by mass spectrometry.<br /><br /><br /><br />In the second part of the thesis, the Aβ-epitope recognized by single chain llama anti-Aβ antibodies was identified. Mass spectrometric analysis was combined with proteolytic excision and extraction approaches previously developed in our laboratory. For the epitope excision and extraction experiments, affinity columns were prepared by immobilizing the antibodies on NHS-activated Sepharose. For protein digestion trypsin, chymotrypsin, LysC and GluC-proteases were employed and the proteolytic mixtures subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS. The epitope excision and extraction, followed by mass spectrometric analysis, provided direct information on the epitope recognized by single chain llama anti-Aβ antibodies. The results revealed an epitope located in the mid-to-C-terminal part of Aβ(1-40), Aβ(17-28). The secondary structure of the identified Aβ(17-28) epitope was determined by CD spectroscopy. Comparative binding studies of single chain llama anti-Aβ antibodies with the epitope were performed by ELISA. To determine the functional epitope (amino acids within Aβ(17-28), which are essential for binding the single chain llama anti-Aβ antibodies), site-directed alanine mutated Aβ(17-28) peptides were synthesized. Selective identification of the affinity preserving mutant peptides was achieved by comparative ELISA studies.<br /><br /><br /><br />In the third part of the dissertation, affinity- mass spectrometric methods were applied for the investigation of the specific interactions between Aβ-peptides and single chain llama anti-Aβ antibodies. Furthermore, the interaction between CDR3 peptide of a single chain llama anti-Aβ antibody and Aβ(1-40) was assessed by affinity- mass spectrometry. For the affinity studies, the single chain antibodies were immobilized on NHS-activated Sepharose. Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(17-28) were dissolved in PBS and exposed to the single chain llama antibody columns, while CDR3 peptide was added on Cys-Aβ(1-40) column. The unbound peptides were removed, the columns were washed several times and then the antigen-antibody complex was dissociated under acidic conditions. The supernatant, washing and elution fractions were collected and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Affinity binding studies were also performed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor, which is sensitive to mass loadings and viscosity changes. The method was applied to different antigen-antibodies systems. The antigens were covalently immobilized on the surface of the biosensor chip. The dissociation constants of the interactions between the single chain antibodies, Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(17-28) (KD) were found to be in the nanomolar range.<br /><br /><br /><br />A fourth part of the dissertation was focused on the identification and characterization of the interaction structures between Aβ(1-40) and human Cystatin C (HCC) using an affinity- mass spectrometric approach, CD spectroscopy, ELISA and SAW biosensor. The results of the proteolytic excision and extraction in combination with mass spectrometry showed that the HCC biding site was located in the central region of Aβ(1-40), within residues (17-28), while the Aβ-binding site was located in the C-terminal part within L2 loop and β5 strand of wt HCC, within residues (101-117). The C-terminal binding epitope enables the interaction between L2-β5 part of wt HCC with Aβ peptide with the without any restriction. The binding specificities and affinities of the epitopes were analyzed by ELISA. Thus, comparative ELISA studies were performed with the Aβ(17-28) epitope and wt HCC, as well as with the C-terminal HCC peptides (HCC(93-120), HCC(101-117), HCC(101-114) fragments), which were identified by epitope excision mass spectrometry. The specific interaction between HCC(93-120) or HCC(101-117) fragments and Aβ(17-28) epitopes was shown by direct high resolution ESI- mass spectrometry.<br /><br /><br /><br />In the last part of the thesis, in vitro characterization of Aβ(1-40) aggregation products employing gel electrophoresis, Dot blot and Thioflavin assay was performed. Furthermore, the inhibition of Aβ(1-40) oligomer formation by HCC fragments was investigated using the Thioflavin assay. In vitro aggregation of synthetic and recombinant Aβ(1-40) was carried out by dissolving the sample in trifluoroethanol (TFE), hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and NaOH and followed by incubation at 37 °C in PBS for 0, 2, 4 and 7 days. The formation of oligomers and protofibrils was monitored by 1D-Tris-Tricine polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which indicated the presence of trimers, tetramers and protofibrils. The Thioflavin assay showed that in both experiments with previous solubilisation of the samples in NaOH or HFIP the aggregation rate was higher for recombinant Aβ(1-40) than for synthetic Aβ(1-40). The inhibition of Aβ(1-40) aggregation was carried out using different ratios between Aβ and HCC(93-120) or HCC(101-117) and analyzed by Thioflavin T assay. Using a two fold molar excess of HCC(93-120), Aβ(1-40) showed a significant decrease of aggregation rate after 4 days. Using a 1:0.5 Aβ(1-40) : HCC(101-117) molar ratio, a decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed, due to a partial inhibition of Aβ- aggregation.<br /><br /><br /><br />The results obtained in the present work showed that single chain antibodies and human Cystatin C protein recognize the middle domain of Aβ-peptide, which can be applied to design new epitope conjugates. The interaction of HCC with Aβ may be an important neuroprotective mechanism in brain and may attenuate the oligomerisation of Aβ and play a regulating role in Aβ amyloidogenesis. Furthermore, the identification of the binding site in HCC should be of importance for aggregation studies of Aβ peptide and new oligomerisation inhibitors may be designed based on the HCC-epitope. In vivo preliminary studies showed that HCC(101-117) does in fact react with Aβ species and might have therefore a therapeutical utility in humans. It seems somehow a paradox that the interaction of two potentially amyloidogenic molecules might provide a lead to control or inhibit neuropathological changes in amyloidogenic diseases.

Dateiabrufe seit 01.10.2014 (Informationen über die Zugriffsstatistik)

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