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One Step Beyond : Introduction, Evaluation and Applications of a Real Time EEG Framework

One Step Beyond : Introduction, Evaluation and Applications of a Real Time EEG Framework

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HARTMANN, Thomas, 2012. One Step Beyond : Introduction, Evaluation and Applications of a Real Time EEG Framework [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz

@phdthesis{Hartmann2012Beyon-19387, title={One Step Beyond : Introduction, Evaluation and Applications of a Real Time EEG Framework}, year={2012}, author={Hartmann, Thomas}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

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Two, not mutually exclusive, approaches are currently used: the first scrutinizes the impact of incoming stimulation on oscillatory activity, assuming that relevant processes start at stimulus onset and the baseline mainly consists of noise. The second approach examines the impact of the spontaneous fluctuations of the oscillations on behavior and perception. More recent research has suggested an interaction between the ongoing and spontaneously fluctuating oscillatory activity and activity induced by an incoming stimulus. Thus, the current brain state, represented by its oscillatory activity, would determine the "fate" of the stimulus. Studies that have used either one or a combination of both approaches have, for instance, shown that alpha oscillations can be related to the (active) inhibition of the respective cortical area. However, these approaches not only average over hundreds of trials, thereby neglecting possible modulations between those, but also stimulate the participants regardless of the current brain state. Yet, if a hypothesis about the impact of a certain brain state (known to be correlated to some neurophysiological measure, for instance, oscillations) exists a priori, stimulating as close as possible to the desired brain state would a) strengthen the hypothetical underpinning of the experiment, b) introduce the possibility for stronger statistical comparisons and c) would allow for a more focused scrutiny of the desired brain-states. This dissertation introduces an innovative open source software called ConSole that enables scientists to setup and conduct real time experiments without sophisticated IT knowledge. The software is described in detail together with extensive validation, several proof-of-principles as well as its application as a software to conduct Neurofeedback, another application of real time EEG analysis. Neurofeedback exploits the fact that it is possible to train participants to modulate cortical oscillations. This has been used extensively in the past to treat conditions that are correlated with alteration in cortical activity, among them tinnitus. Tinnitus is of particular interest, as connections have been drawn in the past year between a disturbed excitatory-inhibitory balance (i.e., a lack of inhibition at auditory areas) and the relationship of alpha oscillations to cortical inhibition. The article argues that a successful therapy for tinnitus should increase inhibition at primary auditory regions, potentially detectable by increased alpha power. The study compares the outcome after Neurofeedback and rTMS (verum or sham) treatment of tinnitus patients. While Neurofeedback decreases tinnitus distress and increases alpha power at the right primary auditory cortex, neither effect is found in any of the rTMS conditions. The analysis of long range connectivity further shows increased outgoing connections for the Neurofeedback condition neighboring the alpha power effect as well as a decrease of incoming connections at the contralateral hemisphere. Both rTMS conditions showed effects for outgoing connectivity at right auditory areas, yet more posterior than the Neurofeedback effects. Interestingly, verum treatment led to an increase while sham treatment led to a decrease.</dcterms:abstract> <dcterms:issued>2012</dcterms:issued> <dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/43"/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>

Dateiabrufe seit 01.10.2014 (Informationen über die Zugriffsstatistik)

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