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Chemical synthesis of bacterial lipoteichoic acids : an insight on its biological significance

Chemical synthesis of bacterial lipoteichoic acids : an insight on its biological significance

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SCHMIDT, Richard, Christian Marcus PEDERSEN, Yan QIAO, Ulrich ZÄHRINGER, 2011. Chemical synthesis of bacterial lipoteichoic acids : an insight on its biological significance. In: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 9(7), pp. 2040-2052. ISSN 1477-0520. eISSN 1477-0539. Available under: doi: 10.1039/c0ob00794c

@article{Schmidt2011-04-07Chemi-18126, title={Chemical synthesis of bacterial lipoteichoic acids : an insight on its biological significance}, year={2011}, doi={10.1039/c0ob00794c}, number={7}, volume={9}, issn={1477-0520}, journal={Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry}, pages={2040--2052}, author={Schmidt, Richard and Pedersen, Christian Marcus and Qiao, Yan and Zähringer, Ulrich} }

First publ. in: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry ; 9 (2011), 7. - pp. 2040-2052 2012-02-14T12:49:48Z Pedersen, Christian Marcus Schmidt, Richard 2011-04-07 eng Chemical synthesis of bacterial lipoteichoic acids : an insight on its biological significance deposit-license Zähringer, Ulrich Pedersen, Christian Marcus During infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) has a dominant role leading to fulminant pro-inflammatory reactions in the host. As there is no LPS in Gram-positive bacteria, other microbial cell wall components have been identified to be the causative agent for the pro-inflammatory activity since also Gram-positive bacterial infections lead to comparable clinical symptoms and reactions. On search for the “Gram-positive endotoxin” a widely accepted hypothesis has been raised in that the lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) during Gram-positive sepsis, although the amount necessary for a pro-inflammatory in vitro response is several orders of magnitude higher than that for LPS. Therefore, LTA cannot be considered to be “the (endo)toxin of Gram-positive bacteria”. Although LPS and LTA show structural relatedness (amphiphilic, negatively charged glycophospholipids), they are structurally quite different from each other and one might expect that they are also recognized by different receptors of the innate immune system, the so called toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4 and TLR2), respectively. Based on their chemical structure, the LTAs were classified into four types (type I–IV) of which we have carefully investigated the LTA of Staphylococcus aureus (type I), Lactococcus garvieae (type II) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (type IV). Hence, these LTAs have been synthesized in our group and biologically evaluated with respect to their potency to activate cytokines in transiently TLR2/CD14-transfected human endothelial kidney cells (HEK 293) or human macrophages and whole blood cells. Although LTA of type I and IV are structurally quite different, especially in their hydrophilic moiety, they originally were believed to interact with the same receptor (TLR2). Hence, the chemical syntheses leading to structurally defined, non-contaminated stimuli have a major impact on the outcome and interpretation of these biological studies of the innate immune system. With this material, it became evident that synthetic LTA from S. aureus and S. pneumoniae are not recognized by TLR2. Instead, another receptor of the innate immune system, the lectin pathway of the complement, known since many years to interact with LTA in quite a specific way, has gained increasing attractivity. With the help of synthetic LTA we obtained first evidences that this receptor is indeed the pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for LTA. Schmidt, Richard Zähringer, Ulrich Qiao, Yan 2012-02-14T12:49:48Z Qiao, Yan

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