Subcategorization Acquisition and Classes of Predication in Urdu

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Die Acquirierung von Subkategorisierung und Klassen der Prädikation in Urdu
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Zusammenfassung

In this thesis, I have focused on identifying and exploring different types of predicators and patterns of their subcategorization frames in Urdu. Not having at hand refined resources for Urdu, for example, part-of-speech tagged corpora or tree bank, it was investigated how to acquire subcategorization of verbs from a raw Urdu corpus. Challenges to automatic subcategorization acquisition from a raw Urdu corpus were discussed in Chapter 2. Urdu is a free word order language in which major constituents can scramble among each other in a clause. That is, an argument of a verb is not strictly bounded to some specific position in a sentential clause, although the verb itself usually comes last. So, identification of the argument based on its position is not possible in Urdu in contrast with other languages like English where some arguments can be identified only by their positions in a sentence.


The participants of verbs in Urdu sentences are usually marked for case by different case clitics. It first seemed straightforward to identify different arguments based on case marking. But it turned out that case clitics pose challenges. There is not a one-to-one correspondence between the case clitic form and the case feature. That is, the same clitic form is used to mark nouns for more than one case. Another challenge is that the same grammatical function is marked for different cases in different situations.


Furthermore, both nouns and verbs can subcategorize for their arguments. So, it was also a challenge to identify which case phrase is semantically combined with which predicator. The case phrase attachment ambiguities in some sense resemble to the PP-attachment ambiguities in English and other langauges. To identify the complementizer clause based on the complementizer form is not trivial in Urdu as the same form of complementizer is also used for many other functions.


Having explored the above challenges, an algorithm was devised to acquire subcategorization information from a raw Urdu corpus. In the subcategorization acquisition system for Urdu (SASU) many of above challenges were addressed and a few were ignored. The SASU system was presented in Chapter 3. The strategy of the SASU system differs from existing strategies in two respects. For one, lexical clues of case are used. Secondly, the frames are identified indirectly from the extracted case phrases by applying some meta rules. This system comprises of two input repositories and a verb conjugator and four more components. About 700 basic verbs of Urdu were collected from different resources and a corpus of Urdu obtained mainly from news sites was cleaned and segmented. The different morphological inflectional paradigms of verbs were analyzed and an Urdu verb-conjugator was implemented as a supplementary part of the SASU system.


To extract subcategorization frames of a verb, a component of the system finds all candidate sentences by comparing the conjugation forms of the verb with tokens of sentences in the corpora. Necessary screening of candidate sentences is made to make it sure that the verb in those sentences is used as a main verb and that it is not of the verb of some subordinating or coordinating clause. Another component then builds different case clitics and complementizer combinations and collect their frequencies in the corpus. The third component of the system filters out potentially invalid combinations based on statistical method. The final component induces the frames of verbs from the valid case clitics and complementizer combinations. Results of subcategorization frames of 60 basic verbs in a summarized form were reported. These 60 verbs were chosen based on sufficient number of their occurrences in the corpora.


Due to the diversified syntacto-semantic behavior of the basic verb ho be/become', it was not viable to extract its subcategorization information by the developed system. So, this verb was individually investigated in Chapter 4 for its different uses and subcategorization frames. It was shown that the verb ho can basically be classified into stative ho and dynamic ho. The syntactic distribution of stative ho and dynamic ho are different in terms of aspect, taking the light verb ja go' and making modal construction with the verb cah `want'. Both stative ho and dynamic ho act either intransitively or a as a copula. Syntactic frames of both types of copula were explored. Dynamic copula only subcategories for a subset of the frames selected by the stative copula. Although Urdu is a free word order language, the position of the participant does matter for interpreting it as a subject or a complement in case of copular sentences. The characterizing participles which are constructed by perfect form of ho were also analyzed with respect to the arguments they modify.


Arguments of deverbal adjectives and deverbal nouns were investigated in Chapter 5. Noun phrases containing multiple instances of genitive elements were explored and the order of different genitive modifiers in them was established. It was shown that only attributive genitives can stack together at same level before adjectives in Urdu NPs, otherwise there is always a hierarchical structure. Attributive genitives show syntactic distribution similar to adjectives. Furthermore it was shown that some nouns in Urdu can take two genitive marked arguments. A classification of nouns was made based on number and type of genitive marked argumetns. It was reported that discontinuous constituents are generated in Urdu NPs when an argument taking noun is modified by some argument taking adjective or if the argument of the head noun itself licenses its argument. Heads cannot appear before their argument in noun phrases. Argument-less adjectives are always contiguous to the head noun. The syntactic explanation of the phenomenon was provided in terms of multiple movements across different projections. In LFG a flat c-structure was proposed for Urdu NPs. A correct f-structure was generated by making use of different operators of XLE in the grammar rules.


Adpositions as predicators were analyzed in Chapter 6. A model of spatial adpositions in LFG was proposed in terms of lex-sem features drawing on Svenoniuous notions of spatial expressions. Different classes of adpositions were made based on the case of their complements. An evidence for complex adpositions in Urdu was provided. It was shown that nouns in complex adpositions show different syntactic distribution compared with their normal syntactic distribution. Linguistically motivated implementation of complex adpositions was presented.


To conclude, this thesis reports results of an exhaustive research made on patterns of predicators and their subcategorization frames in Urdu. An acquisition system is presented which extracts the subcategorization frames of Urdu verbs based on lexical cues of case clitics and complementizer forms. Having a very large and balanced corpus of Urdu, the SASU system presented in the thesis can be used to build the broad-coverage lexicon of Urdu verbs enriched with their subcategorization information in terms of grammatical functions coupled with their case marking. This system can support identification of complex predicates and also useful in discovering different patterns of syntactic alternations for Urdu verbs. By adding more bits of adpositions in the information vector, the adpositional arguments of verbs can also be extracted.


As a future work, the system can be generalized for South-Asian languages as many South-Asian languages like Saraiki and Sindhi are structurally very close to Urdu. The language selection and other parameters could be set at the interface level and subcategorization information in different South-Asian languages can be acquired by using the same inside technology. More fine-grained and advanced computing applications for South-Asian languages in general and particularly Urdu can be developed by using the SASU system as a core module.


The classes of verbs based on their syntactic frames can be explored. Incorporating the information of syntactic frames with allowed alternations and features of selectional preferences could be more useful in exploring semantic classes of verbs in Urdu. Formal analysis needs to be worked out for phenomena like even predicates and many complex predicates reported in the thesis which have not yet been analyzed and implemented in context of some formal theory.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache

In dieser Dissertation habe ich mich mit der Identifikation und Untersuchung verschieden Typen der Prädikation und deren Muster der Subkategorisierung beschäftigt. Da keine präzisen Resourcen wie zum Beispiel part-of-speech getaggte Korpora oder eine Baumbank für Urdu verfügbar sind, wurde untersucht, wie man die Subkategorisierungsrahmen von Verben aus rohen Urdu Korpora erfassen kann. Die Herausforderungen der automatischen Erfassung von Subkategorisierungsrahmen aus einem rohen Korpus für Urdu werden im zweiten Kapitel diskutiert. Urdu ist eine Sprache mit freier Wortstellung, bei der sich die Hauptkonstituenten frei im Satz bewegen können. Das bedeutet, dass ein Verbargument nicht strikt an eine Position im Satz gebunden ist, obwohl das Verb selber normalerweise am Schluss steht. Demnach ist die Identifikation eines Arguments aufgrund seiner Position in Satz im Falle von Urdu nicht möglich, dies steht im Gegensatz zu anderen Sprachen wie Englisch, wo einige Argumente aufgrund ihrer Position im Satz bestimmt werden können.


Argumente von Verben werden in Urdu Sätzen generell mit Klitika kasusmarkiert. Es sah zunächst relativ unkompliziert aus, diese Argument aufgrund ihrer Kasusmarkierung zu identifizieren. Allerdings stellte sich heraus, dass diese Kasusklitika einige Herausforderungen aufwerfen. Es gibt keine Eins-zu-eins-übereinstimmung zwischen Kasusklitikon und Kasuseigenschaft. Das bedeutet, dass dasselbe Klitikon Nomen mit mehr als einem Kasus markieren kann. Eine weitere Herausforderung ist, dass dieselbe grammatische Funktion, abhängig von der jeweiligen Situation, mit unterschiedlichem Kasus versehen sein kann.


Darüber hinaus können Nomen und Verben Argumente haben. Deswegen war es auch eine Herausforderung herauszufinden, welche kasusmarkierte Phrase semantisch mit welchem Prädikat verbunden ist. Die Bindungsambiguitäten der Kasusphrase sind in etwa vergleichbar mit der Bindungsambiguität von Präpositionalphrasen im Englischen und anderen Sprachen. Die Identifikation der Komplementiererphrase auf der Basis des Komplementierers ist nicht einfach in Urdu, da dieselbe Komplementiererform auch für andere Funktionen verwendet wird.


Nach der Erforschung der oben genannten Herausforderungen wurde ein Algorithmus konzipiert, der die Subkategorisierungsinformation aus dem rohen Urdu Korpus gewinnt. In diesem System zur Gewinnung von Subkategorisierungsrahmen (SASU) sind viele der oben genannten Herausforderungen berücksichtigt, einige wurden auch ignoriert. Das SASU System wurde in Kapitel 3 präsentiert. Die Herangehensweise des SASU Systems unterscheidet sich von bereits existieren Strategien in zweierlei Hinsicht. Zum einen werden lexikalische Hinweise für Kasus benutzt. Zweitens werden die Rahmen indirekt aus den extrahierten Kasusphrasen identifiziert, indem Metaregeln angewandt werden. Dieses System beinhaltet zwei Archive für die Eingabe, ein Verbkonjugator und vier weitere Komponenten. Rund 700 Basisverben in Urdu wurden von unterschiedlichen Quellen gesammelt, zudem wurde ein Urdu Korpus auf der Basis von verschiedenen Nachrichtenseiten aufgeräumt und segmentiert. Die verschiedenen morphologischen Flektionsparadigmen der Verben wurden analysiert und ein Verbkonjugator wurde als unterstützender Teil des SASU Systems implementiert.


Um die Subkategorisierungsrahmen eines Verbes zu extrahieren findet eine Komponente des Systems alle Kandidatensätze in dem die Konjugationsformen des Verbes mit den Token der Sätze im Korpus überstimmen. Um sicherzugehen, dass das Verb in diesem Sätzen als Hauptverb benutzt wird und nicht als Verb eines Nebensatzes oder einer Koordinierungskonstruktion, ist ein Durchsehen der Kandidatensätze nötig. Eine weitere Komponente baut dann verschiedene Kasusklitika und Komplementiererkonstruktionen zusammen und ermittelt deren Häufigkeit im Korpus. Die dritte Komponente des Systems filtert auf der Basis einer statistischen Komponente potentiell falsche Kombinationen aus. Die letzte Komponente induziert die Subkategorisierungsrahmen der Verben aufgrund der validen Kombinationen von Kasusklitika und Komplementiererkombinationen. Die Ergebnisse der Subkategorisierungsrahmen von sechzig Basisverben werden in zusammengefasster Form in der Dissertation dargestellt. Die Auswahl dieser Verben wurde aufgrund ihres ausreichenden Vorkommens in den Korpora getroffen.


Das Verb ho to be/become' wurde aufgrund seines breit gefächerten syntaktisch-semantischen Verhaltens separat in Kapitel 4 behandelt. Es wurde gezeigt, dass das Verb ho generell in statisches ho und dynamisches ho eingeteilt werden kann. Die syntaktische Verteilung des statischen und dynamischen ho unterscheiden sich mit Hinsicht auf ihren Aspekt, ihrer Kombination mit dem Hilfsverb ja gehen' und der Fähigkeit zu Modalkonstruktionen mit dem Verb cah `wollen'. Statisches und dynamisches ho kommen beide entweder in einer Intransitivkonstruktion oder in einer Kopulakonstruktion vor. Die syntaktischen Rahmen für beide Arten der Kopulakonstruktion wurden untersucht. Das dynamische ho subkategorisiert nur für eine Untermenge an syntaktischen Rahmen die für das statische ho gelten. Obwohl Urdu eine Sprache mit freier Wortstellung ist, ist die Position des Arguments in Kopulakonstruktionen wichtig für seine Interpretation als Subjekt oder Komplement. Die charakterisierenden Partizipien, die mit der Perfektform von ho geformt werden, werden ebenfalls mit Hinsicht auf die von ihnen modifizierten Argumenten analysiert.


Argumente von Verbaladjektiven und Verbalnomen wurden in Kapitel 5 untersucht.
Nominalphrasen mit mehreren Genitivelementen wurden analysiert und es wurde gezeigt, dass nur attributive Genitive auf der gleichen Ebene der Urdu NP zusammengesetzt werden können, in allen anderen Fällen gibt es eine hierarchische Struktur. Weiterführend wurde gezeigt, dass einige Nomen in Urdu zwei genitiv-markierte Argumente besitzen können. Aufbauend auf der Anzahl und des Typs der genitiv-markierten Argumente wurde eine Nomenklassifizierung durchgeführt. Dabei wurde berichtet, dass nicht-kontinuierliche Konstituenten in der Nominalphrase in Urdu dadurch gebildet werden, dass ein subkategorisierendes Nomen von einem subkategorisierenden Adjektiv modifiziert wird oder dass das Argument des Nomes ein eigenes Nomen lizensiert. The syntaktische Erklärung des Phänomens wird bereitgestellt, ebenso wie eine Implementierung im Rahmen von LFG.


Adpositionen als Prädikatoren wurden in Kapitel 6 analysiert. Ein Modell für räumliche Adpositionen im Rahmen von LFG wurde vorgeschlagen, auf der Basis der von Svnenonius lexikalisch-semantischen Ideen zum Ausdruck von Räumlichkeit. Auf der Basis des Kasus ihrer Objekte wurden Adpositionen in verschiedene Klassen eingeteilt. Es wurde gezeigt, dass Nomen in komplexen Adpositionen eine unterschiedliche syntaktische Verteilung zur ihrer normalen syntaktischen Verteilung aufweisen. Die linguistisch motivierte Implementation dieser komplexen Adpositionen wurde gezeigt.


Zusammenfassend berichtet diese Dissertation über die Ergebnisse umfassender Forschung zu den Mustern von Predikatoren und deren Subkategorisierungsrahmen in Urdu. Durch einen sehr großen, ausreichend gewichteten Korpus kann das SASU System, das in dieser Dissertation vorgestellt wurde, benutzt werden, um ein umfassendes Verblexikon mit Subkategorisierungsinformation im Sinne ihrer grammatischen Funktionen und deren Kasusmarkierung zu erstellen. Dieses System kann für die Identifikation von komplexen Prädikaten verwendet werden, sowie bei der Erkennung von syntaktischen Alternationen von Urdu Verben behilflich sein. Als Teil der zukünftigen Aufgaben können Verbklassen aufgrund der syntaktischen Rahmen untersucht werden. Die Inkorporation der syntaktischen Rahmen mit möglichen Alternationen und Eigenschaften der lexikalischen Beschränkungen können bei der Untersuchung von semantischen Verbklassen in Urdu eingesetzt werden. Die formale Analyse kann insoweit ausgebaut werden, als dass für manche Phänomene von Verben und komplexen Prädikaten, über die in dieser Dissertation berichtet wurde, formal weder eine Analyse noch eine Implementation existiert.

Fachgebiet (DDC)
400 Sprachwissenschaft, Linguistik
Schlagwörter
discountinuous noun phrases, subcategorization, classes of predication
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undefined / . - undefined, undefined
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Zeitschriftenheft
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Zitieren
ISO 690RAZA, Ghulam, 2011. Subcategorization Acquisition and Classes of Predication in Urdu [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz
BibTex
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  title={Subcategorization Acquisition and Classes of Predication in Urdu},
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">In this thesis, I have focused on identifying and exploring different types of predicators and patterns of their subcategorization frames in Urdu. Not having at hand refined resources for Urdu, for example, part-of-speech tagged corpora or tree bank, it was investigated how to acquire subcategorization of verbs from a raw Urdu corpus. Challenges to automatic subcategorization acquisition from a raw Urdu corpus were discussed in Chapter 2. Urdu is a free word order language in which major constituents can scramble among each other in a clause. That is, an argument of a verb is not strictly bounded to some specific position in a sentential clause, although the verb itself usually comes last. So, identification of the argument based on its position is not possible in Urdu in contrast with other languages like English where some arguments can be identified only by their positions in a sentence.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;The participants of verbs in Urdu sentences are usually marked for case by different case clitics. It first seemed straightforward to identify different arguments based on case marking. But it turned out that case clitics pose challenges. There is not a one-to-one correspondence between the case clitic form and the case feature. That is, the same clitic form is used to mark nouns for more than one case. Another challenge is that the same grammatical function is marked for different cases in different situations.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Furthermore, both nouns and verbs can subcategorize for their arguments. So, it was also a challenge to identify which case phrase is semantically combined with which predicator. The case phrase attachment ambiguities in some sense resemble to the PP-attachment ambiguities in English and other langauges. To identify the complementizer clause based on the complementizer form is not trivial in Urdu as the same form of complementizer is also used for many other functions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Having explored the above challenges, an algorithm was devised to acquire subcategorization information from a raw Urdu corpus. In the subcategorization acquisition system for Urdu (SASU) many of above challenges were addressed and a few were ignored. The SASU system was presented in Chapter 3. The strategy of the SASU system differs from existing strategies in two respects. For one, lexical clues of case are used. Secondly, the frames are identified indirectly from the extracted case phrases by applying some meta rules.  This system comprises of two input repositories and a verb conjugator and four more components. About 700 basic verbs of Urdu were collected from different resources and a corpus of Urdu obtained mainly from news sites was cleaned and segmented. The different morphological inflectional paradigms of verbs were analyzed and an Urdu verb-conjugator was implemented as a supplementary part of the SASU system.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;To extract subcategorization frames of a verb, a component of the system finds all candidate sentences by comparing the conjugation forms of the verb with tokens of sentences in the corpora. Necessary screening of candidate sentences is made to make it sure that the verb in those sentences is used as a main verb and that it is not of the verb of some subordinating or coordinating clause. Another component then builds different case clitics and complementizer combinations and collect their frequencies in the corpus. The third component of the system filters out potentially invalid combinations based on statistical method. The final component induces the frames of verbs from the valid case clitics and complementizer combinations. Results of subcategorization frames of 60 basic verbs in a summarized form were reported. These 60 verbs were chosen based on sufficient number of their occurrences in the corpora.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Due to the diversified syntacto-semantic behavior of the basic verb ho `be/become', it was not viable to extract its subcategorization information  by the developed system. So, this verb was individually investigated in Chapter 4 for its different uses and subcategorization frames.  It was shown that the verb ho can basically be classified into stative ho and dynamic ho. The syntactic distribution of stative ho and dynamic ho are different in terms of aspect, taking the light verb ja `go' and making modal construction with the verb cah `want'. Both stative ho and dynamic ho act either intransitively or a as a copula.  Syntactic frames of both types of copula were explored. Dynamic copula only subcategories for a subset  of the frames selected by the stative copula. Although Urdu is a free word order language, the position of the participant does matter for interpreting it as a subject or a complement in case of copular sentences. The characterizing participles which are constructed by perfect form of ho were also analyzed with respect to the arguments they modify.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Arguments of deverbal adjectives and deverbal nouns were investigated in Chapter 5. Noun phrases containing multiple instances of genitive elements were explored and the order of different genitive modifiers in them was established. It was shown that only attributive genitives can stack together at same level before adjectives in Urdu NPs, otherwise there is always a hierarchical structure. Attributive genitives show syntactic distribution similar to adjectives. Furthermore it was shown that some nouns in Urdu can take two genitive marked arguments. A classification of nouns was made based on number and type of genitive marked argumetns. It was reported that discontinuous constituents are generated in Urdu NPs when an argument taking noun is modified by some argument taking adjective or if the argument of the head noun itself licenses its argument. Heads cannot appear before their argument in noun phrases. Argument-less adjectives are always contiguous to the head noun. The syntactic explanation of the phenomenon was provided in terms of multiple movements across different projections. In LFG a flat c-structure was proposed for Urdu NPs. A correct f-structure was generated by making use of different operators of XLE in the grammar rules.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Adpositions as predicators were analyzed in Chapter 6. A model of spatial adpositions in LFG was proposed in terms of lex-sem features drawing on Svenoniuous notions of spatial expressions. Different classes of adpositions were made based on the case of their complements. An evidence for complex adpositions in Urdu was provided. It was shown that nouns in complex adpositions show different syntactic distribution compared with their normal syntactic distribution. Linguistically motivated implementation of complex adpositions was presented.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;To conclude, this thesis reports results of an exhaustive research made on patterns of predicators and their subcategorization frames in Urdu. An acquisition system is presented which extracts the subcategorization frames of Urdu verbs based on lexical cues of case clitics and complementizer forms. Having a very large and balanced corpus of Urdu, the SASU system presented in the thesis can be used to build the broad-coverage lexicon of Urdu verbs enriched with their subcategorization information in terms of grammatical functions coupled with their case marking. This system can support identification of complex predicates and also useful in discovering different patterns of syntactic alternations for Urdu verbs. By adding more bits of adpositions in the information vector, the adpositional arguments of verbs can also be extracted.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;As a future work, the system can be generalized for South-Asian languages as many South-Asian languages like Saraiki and Sindhi are structurally very close to Urdu.  The language selection and other parameters could be set at the interface level and subcategorization information in different South-Asian languages can be acquired by using the same inside technology. More fine-grained and advanced computing applications for South-Asian languages in general and particularly Urdu can be developed by using the SASU system as a core module.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;The classes of verbs based on their syntactic frames can be explored. Incorporating the information of syntactic frames with allowed alternations and features of selectional preferences could be more useful in exploring semantic classes of verbs in Urdu. Formal analysis needs to be worked out for phenomena like even predicates and many complex predicates reported in the thesis which have not yet been analyzed and implemented in context of some formal theory.&lt;br /&gt;</dcterms:abstract>
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