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Effects of Motivation and Distraction on the Processing of Stereotype-Relevant Information

Effects of Motivation and Distraction on the Processing of Stereotype-Relevant Information


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MICHALSKI, Verena, 2008. Effects of Motivation and Distraction on the Processing of Stereotype-Relevant Information

@phdthesis{Michalski2008Effec-10962, title={Effects of Motivation and Distraction on the Processing of Stereotype-Relevant Information}, year={2008}, author={Michalski, Verena}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

eng Research has shown that stereotyping other persons is difficult to control. One strategy of stereotype control is processing stereotype-inconsistent information, that is, processing information that is in contrast to current stereotypic expectations about a target person (Fiske & Neuberg, 1990; Pettigrew, 1998). Restricting stereotypes by processing stereotype-inconsistent information can be easily realized if cognitive resources are available. However, if load is induced during the processing of this information, it is more often forgotten than stereotype-consistent information (see Sherman & Frost, 2000; Wigboldus et al., 2004a). This neglect of stereotype-inconsistent information is observed even if goals are formed to acquire a stereotype-free impression of the target person (Pendry & Macrae, 1994). As Norman and Shallice (1986) maintain that successful goal pursuit requires cognitive resources, it is not surprising that setting goals is not sufficient for processing stereotype-inconsistent information under load. Thus, supporting the processing of stereotype-inconsistent information under load should be improved by an intention that does not require cognitive resources. As implementation intentions are proven to be realized automatically (Gollwitzer, 1993, 1999), it can be suggested that by means of these if-then plans the processing of stereotype-inconsistent information can be supported even under conditions of cognitive load.<br />In order to test this assumption, the present dissertation investigated the effects of cognitive load on the processing of stereotype-inconsistent and stereotype-consistent information. Participants were thus presented with information that was either inconsistent or consistent with stereotypes of elderly people and long-term memory tests measured memory of the different types of information. Different experimental paradigms were established. Information regarding the target person was either presented as a verbal description on a sheet of paper, as behavioral information on a computer screen, or visually in the form of pictures of objects. Thereby, different kinds of cognitive load were applied (central executive load, phonological loop load, and visuospatial sketchpad load, respectively).<br />Results of Study 1 showed that implementation intentions successfully improved memory on stereotype-inconsistent information independent of cognitive load. Furthermore, specificity (Study 1) and automaticity (Study 2b) of implementation intentions effectiveness was demonstrated, while the realization of goal intentions proved to be dependent on cognitive capacity (Study 1, Study 2a). Study 3 and 4 were conducted to establish new paradigms testing the overall effects of implementation intentions on the processing of not only one, but equally distributed items of inconsistent and consistent information. Results partially replicated prior findings, thus still more thorough investigation is necessary. application/pdf Der Einfluss von Motivation und Ablenkung auf die Verarbeitung von stereotyp-relevanten Informationen Michalski, Verena 2011-03-25T09:24:17Z Michalski, Verena Effects of Motivation and Distraction on the Processing of Stereotype-Relevant Information 2008 deposit-license 2011-03-25T09:24:17Z

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