Towards evidence-based post-war reconstruction

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Beitrag zu evidenz-basiertem Nachkriegs-Wiederaufbau
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Zusammenfassung

The three articles, which we present here will shed light on three issues that evolve around the question, how we can better understand violent conflict in sub-Saharan Africa and what can be done to help countries to manage the transition from war to peace.
The first article focuses on an important methodological problem. Failed states are an obvious challenge to human security and the stability of the sub-continent. Therefore, several state-building initiatives have taken place, but they have since shown little success. One reason for this is that the concept of state failure itself is not understood. It is defined by the absence of a central state authority, which would hold the monopoly of power and provide public goods. There is however, a lack of causal models of how violent conflict and state failure relate to each other. Furthermore, the impact of state failure on local communities is under researched. Humanitarian relief workers have therefore, little evidence to rely on in addressing state failure.
Most of the research on the phenomenon uses the state itself as the unit of analysis to understand its collapse. That means macro-level indicators such as child mortality rates and the GDP are scrutinized. However, macro-level data cannot account for the heterogeneity of local realities and are therefore ill suited to understand new wars as described above. This has caused a trend in International Politics to move towards the micro-level to study violent conflict. This paradigm shift is also needed to understand state failure and design interventions. This is crucial, because the macro-level vantage point overlooks local variability. These local variations could, however, be opportunities or important challenges towards state-building. While available datasets employ newspaper articles and news services as their sources of information, the first article goes one step further. We present unique micro-level data, which was gathered in more than 8000 individual interviews with active Somalia militia. Supported by a descriptive analysis of this data, we can show, that there are substantial local variations in state failure. These are only to some extent reflected in indicators, such as the level of health and education, which are often employed in aggregated studies of state failure. We find the main differences with respect to regional variation in distinctive types of armed groups, reasons combatants reported to join these groups, trust or mistrust they have in local authorities and habits of substance consumptions.
The second article addresses war-time sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. With respect to war-time sexual violence there are many competing theories, which aim to explain this behavior. Biological theories argue, that men have a natural tendency towards rape, which will inevitably play out in a war context, where such behavior is not avenged. Theories focusing on armed groups as a whole, on the other hand, make the case, that rape is used as a deliberate strategy.
The UN and many NGOs have labeled sexual violence in the Eastern DRC a weapon of war and called its use strategic. These claims are crucial as they imply, that sexual violence in the Eastern DRC are not only crimes perpetrated by individuals, but under these circumstances, would constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity. We found, that from the perspective of the victims, sexual violence is not only a part of the war, but it is the war itself. For the interviewed women rape was the very modus operandi of war.
The third article focuses on specific post-war intervention: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR). DDR plans are a crucial part of today s negotiated peace agreements. Vast amounts of emergency aid and development money are being allocated to DDR programs. The success of these programs has, however, often been limited and reintegration remains their weakest point. Furthermore, there is as of now almost no evidence-base for either standard reintegration interventions or interventions for vulnerable groups.
Reintegration is hardest for (former) combatants, who suffer from mental impairment and psychological disorders. Many combatants have survived multiple traumatic events, experience depression, suicidal ideation, and substance dependency, which may result in psychotic symptoms. Mentally impaired former combatants should therefore be treated as a vulnerable group within DDR programs. Often they cannot profit from standard reintegration tools.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache

Ziel der vorgelegten Arbeit ist es, Wissen aus den Disziplinen der Klinischen Psychologie und der Internationalen Politik im Dienste der Humanitären Hilfe zu verbinden. Dabei werden in drei Artikeln drei wichtige Themen für die Hilfe in Kriegs- und Krisengebieten behandelt. Der erste Artikel setzt sich mit einem grundsätzlichen methodologischen Problem auseinander. Er beschreibt die Notwendigkeit und praktische Möglichkeit mikro-level Daten zu verwenden, um den Kollaps von Staaten zu verstehen und angemessene Interventionen zu planen. Der zweite Artikel untersucht sexuelle Gewalt während kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen. Der dritte Artikel behandelt Programme zur Entwaffnung, Demobilisierung und Reintegration (DDR von Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration) ehemaliger Kombattantinnen und Kombattanten, sowie anderer mit bewaffneten Gruppen assoziierter Personen.
Der erste Artikel entwirft einen neuen Ansatz um das Kollabieren von Staaten auf dieser Ebene zu verstehen. Hierzu wird die Länderstudie Somalia verwendet und es werden einmalige Daten der Mikro-Ebene vorgestellt. Diese wurden im Rahmen quantitativer Interviews mit mehr als 8000 somalischen Kombattantinnen und Kombattanten erhoben. Ausgehend von diesen Daten werden vielversprechende Indikatoren identifiziert, um das Kollabieren von Staaten zu erforschen.
Der zweite Artikel konzentriert sich auf die Demokratische Republik Kongo. Jeden Tag werden dort Zivilistinnen und Zivilisten Opfer von Gewalt durch bewaffnete Gruppen. Medizinische Fachkräfte, sowie Menschenrechts- und Nichtregierungsorganisationen berichten, dass insbesondere das Ausmaß sexueller Gewalt, die durch bewaffnete Gruppen vor allem an Mädchen und Frauen verübt wird, erschreckend und geradezu endemisch ist. Die internationale Gemeinschaft ist sich darin einig, dass sexuelle Gewalt im Rahmen des Konfliktes strategisch eingesetzt wird und die Vereinten Nationen haben diese Gewalt als Kriegswaffe bezeichnet. Beide Begriffe implizieren konkrete juristische Konsequenzen im Rahmen völkerrechtlicher Abkommen. Es gibt jedoch kaum strukturierte quantitative Daten, welche die These, dass sexuelle Gewalt in der DR Kongo eine strategische Funktion erfüllt, beweisen oder widerlegen könnten.
Um die Sichtweise der betroffenen Mädchen und Frauen in den Vordergrund einer fundierten Diskussion zu stellen, wurden 25 Vergewaltigungsopfer von Psychologinnen interviewt. Aus Sicht der Opfer vergewaltigen Angehörige bewaffneter Gruppen aus einer Vielzahl verschiedener Gründe. Die Opfer nehmen die Vergewaltigungen als endemisch und wahllos wahr. Für sie sind die Verbrechen der modusoperandides Konflikts.
Der dritte Artikel diskutiert Programme zur Entwaffnung, Demobilisierung und Reintegration (DDR), welche ein Teil der meisten internationalen Bemühungen in den Bereichen der Friedenskonsolidierung und des Wiederaufbaus in vormaligen Konfliktgebieten sind. Weit über eine Million ehemaliger Kombattantinnen und Kombattanten haben in mehr als 20 Ländern an DDR Programmen teilgenommen, die meisten von ihnen im Afrika südlich der Sahara. Der Effekt dieser Programme ist bisher jedoch enttäuschend oder wurde erst gar nicht gemessen.
Ein signifikanter Anteil ehemaliger Kombattantinnen und Kombattanten ist als Folge von gravierendem Stress und traumatischen Erlebnissen psychisch erkrankt. Menschen mit post-traumatischer Belastungsstörung, Depression, Substanzabhängigkeit oder psychotischen Symptomen sind in ihrem täglichen Leben stark eingeschränkt. Für diese Personen ist es schwierig sich (wieder) in die Zivilgesellschaft zu integrieren. Außerdem können sie sich nur sehr begrenzt in Versöhnungs- und friedensbildene Prozesse in ihrem sozialen Umfeld und darüber hinaus einbringen. Des Weiteren verfügen Personen, die bereits als Kindersoldatinnen oder Kindersoldaten in einer Kultur der Gewalt und Aggression sozialisiert wurden, oft nicht über die moralische Einstellung und das Verhaltensrepertoire, welche in Friedenszeiten benötigt werden. Dieses Unvermögen stützt Kreisläufe der Gewalt, die möglicherweise über Generationen hinweg aufrechterhalten werden.
Psychologische Behandlung im Rahmen von DDR Programmen ist häufig weder ausreichend spezifisch noch professionell genug, um diese Schwierigkeiten der Reintegration zu mindern und die Gefahr fortgesetzter häuslicher und bewaffneter Gewalt zu verringern. Im dritten Artikel werden deshalb Beispiele spezifischer und gezielter psychologischer Interventionen und Methoden ihrer Dissemination vorgestellt.
Dieser Artikel und somit die vorgelegte Arbeit endet mit dem Vorschlag einer umfassenden gemeindebasierten Intervention im Rahmen eines DDR Programms. Diese beinhaltet gleichermaßen die psychologische Behandlung von erkrankten Personen, wie Interventionen auf der Ebene von sozialen Gemeinschaften, um dort die Reintegration ehemaliger Kombattantinnen und Kombattanten zu fördern und zu nachhaltigem Frieden beizutragen.

Fachgebiet (DDC)
150 Psychologie
Schlagwörter
sexuelle Gewalt, Staatskollaps, DDR, sexual violence, DDR, failed state, post-war reconstruction
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undefined / . - undefined, undefined
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ISO 690MÄDL, Anna, 2010. Towards evidence-based post-war reconstruction [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz
BibTex
@phdthesis{Madl2010Towar-10492,
  year={2010},
  title={Towards evidence-based post-war reconstruction},
  author={Mädl, Anna},
  note={teilweise erschienen in: E. Martz (Ed.): Trauma and Rehabilitation after War and Conflict: Community and Individual Perespectives. New York:  Springer (pp. 177 - 214)},
  address={Konstanz},
  school={Universität Konstanz}
}
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August 2, 2010
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teilweise erschienen in: E. Martz (Ed.): Trauma and Rehabilitation after War and Conflict: Community and Individual Perespectives. New York: Springer (pp. 177 - 214)
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