Neurobiology of Speech Perception : Evidence from Functional Brain Mapping

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OBLESER, Jonas, 2003. Neurobiology of Speech Perception : Evidence from Functional Brain Mapping

@phdthesis{Obleser2003Neuro-10288, title={Neurobiology of Speech Perception : Evidence from Functional Brain Mapping}, year={2003}, author={Obleser, Jonas}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/10288"> <dcterms:issued>2003</dcterms:issued> <dc:creator>Obleser, Jonas</dc:creator> <dcterms:alternative>Neurobiologie der Wahrnehmung gesprochener Sprache: Evidenzen aus der funktionellen Bildgebung</dcterms:alternative> <dcterms:title>Neurobiology of Speech Perception : Evidence from Functional Brain Mapping</dcterms:title> <bibo:uri rdf:resource="http://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/10288"/> <dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format> <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">The poorly understood mechanisms by which the auditory cortex identifies and categorizes speech constitute the focus of this thesis. Seven functional brain mapping studies were conducted to elucidate the influence of both acoustic and phono¬logical properties of vowels and syllables on the auditory brain response. Specifi¬cally, the influence of phonological features, which constitute the sound system of a language, was tested. Both magnetoencephalography (MEG) with subsequent magnetic source imaging of the N100m evoked field com¬ponent and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were applied, while healthy German subjects listened to sequences of vowels or syllables and detected rare target sounds. In a group and a single sub-ject study with identical de¬signs, evidence was gathered that the source topography in auditory cortex under¬lying the N100m component is able to mirror simple acous-tic relationships between synthetic German vowels in an intra-individually reliable fashion. A third study, using a more comprehensive set of natural German vowels, showed that vowels with the mutually exclusive place features CORONAL and DORSAL elicited separate centers of N100m activity along the posterior-anterior axis within the auditory cortices of both hemispheres. This was replicated in a fourth study, where natural consonant-vowel (CV) syllables were used and both the voiced stop consonants and the vowels varied with regard to mutu¬ally exclusive place features: vowel features reproduced the separate mapping effect, while the same phonological features in stop consonants affected the N100m source orientation. Mag¬netic fields elicited by additional non-speech sounds indicated that the attentive processing of vowels and syllables as seen in the N100m mapping is accomplished anterior of primary auditory areas, corroborating assumptions of an auditory ante¬rior what stream and its involvement in speech sound processing. This was also confirmed in a pilot fMRI study that was performed to elucidate the exact anatomi¬cal structures involved in vowel feature extraction. Two additional studies as¬sured that the map-ping of mutually exclusive features was neither due to subject s attentional focus (an experimentally induced switch of attention affected only absolute N100m locations, but not the relative mapping of CORONAL and DORSAL sounds) nor due to subject s gender (gender differences in N100m lateralization were independent of intra-hemispheric functional N100m maps). We also consistently identified effects of pho-nological features on the N100m peak latency that should be further explored. A speculative model of cortical speech sound representation, which integrates findings of this thesis, and which is based on the mapping of abstract features rather than single phonemes is presented and discussed.</dcterms:abstract> <dc:language>eng</dc:language> <dc:contributor>Obleser, Jonas</dc:contributor> <dc:rights>deposit-license</dc:rights> <dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2011-03-25T09:15:46Z</dc:date> <dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2011-03-25T09:15:46Z</dcterms:available> <dcterms:rights rdf:resource="http://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:bsz:352-20140905103416863-3868037-7"/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>

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