Defining the impact of childhood adversities on cognitive deficits in psychosis : An exploratory analysis

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2018
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Schizophrenia research. 2018, 192, pp. 351-356. ISSN 0920-9964. eISSN 1573-2509. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.014
Zusammenfassung

Background
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in psychosis. While it has been repeatedly demonstrated that ACE contribute to cognitive dysfunctions, the specific nature of this contribution remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests that types of adversities during critical periods have deleterious effects on brain structures that are important for cognitive functioning. The present study sought to clarify which types of adversities experienced at which time during development aggravate cognitive deficits in psychosis.

Methods
Exposure to abuse and neglect during childhood and adolescence were retrospectively assessed in N = 168 adult individuals with psychotic disorder. Conditioned random forest regression was used to define the importance of type and timing of ACE for predicting domains of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB).

Results
Significant importance of ACE was determined for 5 out of 7 MCCB domains. Particularly abuse at age 3 contributed to dysfunctional cognitive domains attention, learning, and working memory. Social cognition was related to neglect experienced at 11–12 years, and to cumulative ACE.

Conclusion
Abuse and neglect at periods when children spend substantial time in their families affect cognitive functioning, and hence aggravate dysfunction in psychosis. Results support the neurodevelopmental perspective on psychosis and the diagnostic value of type and timing of ACE.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
Fachgebiet (DDC)
150 Psychologie
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Sensitive period Neurodevelopment Childhood adversities Cognitive functioning
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ISO 690SCHALINSKI, Inga, Martin H. TEICHER, Almut CAROLUS, Brigitte ROCKSTROH, 2018. Defining the impact of childhood adversities on cognitive deficits in psychosis : An exploratory analysis. In: Schizophrenia research. 2018, 192, pp. 351-356. ISSN 0920-9964. eISSN 1573-2509. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.014
BibTex
@article{Schalinski2018-02Defin-41562,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.014},
  title={Defining the impact of childhood adversities on cognitive deficits in psychosis : An exploratory analysis},
  volume={192},
  issn={0920-9964},
  journal={Schizophrenia research},
  pages={351--356},
  author={Schalinski, Inga and Teicher, Martin H. and Carolus, Almut and Rockstroh, Brigitte}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Background&lt;br /&gt;Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in psychosis. While it has been repeatedly demonstrated that ACE contribute to cognitive dysfunctions, the specific nature of this contribution remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests that types of adversities during critical periods have deleterious effects on brain structures that are important for cognitive functioning. The present study sought to clarify which types of adversities experienced at which time during development aggravate cognitive deficits in psychosis.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Methods&lt;br /&gt;Exposure to abuse and neglect during childhood and adolescence were retrospectively assessed in N = 168 adult individuals with psychotic disorder. Conditioned random forest regression was used to define the importance of type and timing of ACE for predicting domains of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Results&lt;br /&gt;Significant importance of ACE was determined for 5 out of 7 MCCB domains. Particularly abuse at age 3 contributed to dysfunctional cognitive domains attention, learning, and working memory. Social cognition was related to neglect experienced at 11–12 years, and to cumulative ACE.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Conclusion&lt;br /&gt;Abuse and neglect at periods when children spend substantial time in their families affect cognitive functioning, and hence aggravate dysfunction in psychosis. Results support the neurodevelopmental perspective on psychosis and the diagnostic value of type and timing of ACE.</dcterms:abstract>
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