Evidence of distinct pathways for bacterial degradation of the steroid compound cholate suggests the potential for metabolic interactions by interspecies cross-feeding

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Environmental Microbiology. 2014, 16(5), pp. 1424-1440. ISSN 1462-2912. eISSN 1462-2920. Available under: doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12407
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The distribution and the metabolic pathways of bacteria degrading steroid compounds released by eukaryotic organisms were investigated using the bile salt cholate as model substrate. Cholate-degrading bacteria could be readily isolated from freshwater environments. All isolated strains transiently released steroid degradation intermediates into culture supernatants before their further degradation. Cholate degradation could be initiated via two different reaction sequences. Most strains degraded cholate via a reaction sequence known from the model organism Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ1,4-diene structure of the steroid skeleton. The actinobacterium Dietzia sp. strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ4,6-diene-7-deoxy structure of the steroid skeleton such as 3,12-dioxo-4,6-choldienoic acid (DOCDA). Using DOCDA as substrate, two Alphaproteobacteria, strains Chol10–11, were isolated that produced the same cholate degradation intermediates as strain Chol2. With DOCDA as substrate for Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 only the side chain was degraded while the ring system was transformed into novel steroid compounds accumulating as dead-end metabolites. These metabolites could be degraded by the DOCDA-producing strains Chol10–11. These results indicate that bacteria with potentially different pathways for cholate degradation coexist in natural habitats and may interact via interspecies cross-feeding.

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ISO 690HOLERT, Johannes, Onur YÜCEL, Vemparthan SUVEKBALA, Zarko KULIC, Heiko M. MÖLLER, Bodo PHILIPP, 2014. Evidence of distinct pathways for bacterial degradation of the steroid compound cholate suggests the potential for metabolic interactions by interspecies cross-feeding. In: Environmental Microbiology. 2014, 16(5), pp. 1424-1440. ISSN 1462-2912. eISSN 1462-2920. Available under: doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12407
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@article{Holert2014-05Evide-28424,
  year={2014},
  doi={10.1111/1462-2920.12407},
  title={Evidence of distinct pathways for bacterial degradation of the steroid compound cholate suggests the potential for metabolic interactions by interspecies cross-feeding},
  number={5},
  volume={16},
  issn={1462-2912},
  journal={Environmental Microbiology},
  pages={1424--1440},
  author={Holert, Johannes and Yücel, Onur and Suvekbala, Vemparthan and Kulic, Zarko and Möller, Heiko M. and Philipp, Bodo}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">The distribution and the metabolic pathways of bacteria degrading steroid compounds released by eukaryotic organisms were investigated using the bile salt cholate as model substrate. Cholate-degrading bacteria could be readily isolated from freshwater environments. All isolated strains transiently released steroid degradation intermediates into culture supernatants before their further degradation. Cholate degradation could be initiated via two different reaction sequences. Most strains degraded cholate via a reaction sequence known from the model organism Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ&lt;sup&gt;1,4&lt;/sup&gt;-diene structure of the steroid skeleton. The actinobacterium Dietzia sp. strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ&lt;sup&gt;4,6&lt;/sup&gt;-diene-7-deoxy structure of the steroid skeleton such as 3,12-dioxo-4,6-choldienoic acid (DOCDA). Using DOCDA as substrate, two Alphaproteobacteria, strains Chol10–11, were isolated that produced the same cholate degradation intermediates as strain Chol2. With DOCDA as substrate for Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 only the side chain was degraded while the ring system was transformed into novel steroid compounds accumulating as dead-end metabolites. These metabolites could be degraded by the DOCDA-producing strains Chol10–11. These results indicate that bacteria with potentially different pathways for cholate degradation coexist in natural habitats and may interact via interspecies cross-feeding.</dcterms:abstract>
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