Effects of habitat fragmentation on the fitness of two common wetland species, Carex davalliana and Succisa pratensis

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2003
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Hooftman, Danny A. P.
Diemer, Matthias
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Oecologia. 2003, 134(3), pp. 350-359. ISSN 0029-8549. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00442-002-1096-0
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Small habitat size and spatial isolation may cause plant populations to suffer from genetic drift and inbreeding, leading to a reduced fitness of individual plants. We examined the germination, establishment, growth, and reproductive capacity of two characteristic species of mown fen meadows, Carex davalliana, and Succisa pratensis, common in Switzerland. Plants were grown from seeds, which were collected in 18 habitat islands, differing in size and in degree of isolation. We used both common garden and reciprocal transplant experiments to assess effects of habitat fragmentation. In the common garden, plants of Carex originating from small habitat islands yielded 35% less biomass, 30% fewer tillers, and 45% fewer flowering tillers than plants from larger ones. In contrast, plants of Succisa originating from small habitat islands yielded 19% more biomass, 14% more flower heads and 35% more flowers per flower head than plants from larger ones. Moreover, plants of Succisa from small isolated habitats yielded 32% more rosettes than did plants from small connected islands. Reciprocally transplanted plants of Succisa originating from small habitat islands produced 7% more rosettes than plants from larger ones. There was no effect of small habitat size and isolation on germination and establishment of both species in the field. Our results document genetic differences in performance attributable to habitat fragmentation in both species. We suggest that fitness loss in Carex is caused by inbreeding depression, whereas in Succisa the differences in fitness are more likely caused by genetic differentiation. Our study implies that habitat fragmentation affects common habitat-specific species, such as Carex and Succisa, as well as rare ones.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Calcareous fen meadows, Establishment, Genetic differences, Habitat size, Reproduction
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ISO 690HOOFTMAN, Danny A. P., Mark VAN KLEUNEN, Matthias DIEMER, 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the fitness of two common wetland species, Carex davalliana and Succisa pratensis. Springer. In: Oecologia. 2003, 134(3), pp. 350-359. ISSN 0029-8549. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00442-002-1096-0
BibTex
@article{Hooftman2003-02Effec-12473,
  year={2003},
  doi={10.1007/s00442-002-1096-0},
  title={Effects of habitat fragmentation on the fitness of two common wetland species, Carex davalliana and Succisa pratensis},
  number={3},
  volume={134},
  issn={0029-8549},
  journal={Oecologia},
  pages={350--359},
  author={Hooftman, Danny A. P. and van Kleunen, Mark and Diemer, Matthias}
}
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