## Contextual imitation in juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax

2020
##### Authors
Schuster, Richard
Federspiel, Ira G.
Heinrich, Bernd
Bugnyar, Thomas
798091
Journal article
Published
##### Published in
Animal Behaviour ; 163 (2020). - pp. 127-134. - Elsevier. - ISSN 0003-3472. - eISSN 1095-8282
##### Abstract
Social learning is a powerful mechanism of information acquisition and can be found in various species. According to the type of information transmitted, animals may change their motivation to perform actions, shift their perception/attention to relevant stimuli, associate other individuals' behaviours with particular stimuli/events or learn to perform ‘novel’ behaviours. The latter is referred to as imitation and has been considered a cognitively demanding mechanism necessary for high-fidelity copying, which may or may not occur in nonhuman animals. We tested the ability of 20 juvenile ravens to imitate an action demonstrated by a human experimenter. Birds of two test groups could observe a familiar human executing one of two opening techniques at an artificial fruit apparatus (horizontal or vertical hand movements directed towards the same location), whereas birds of a control group observed the human touching but not opening the apparatus. Ravens of both test groups tended to use the same direction of movements as observed, when they opened the apparatus themselves with their beak. Comparison with the control group revealed that ravens had a predisposition to manipulate the apparatus by pecking. Hence, observers of vertical hand movements most likely strengthened their initial preference for executing peck movements towards an item enclosing food, whereas observers of horizontal hand movements started to apply beak/head movements that hardly occur during foraging and are ‘novel’ to this context. Juvenile ravens are thus capable of imitating simple motor actions, even though they may use a different body part to execute the behaviours than human demonstrators.
##### Subject (DDC)
570 Biosciences, Biology
##### Keywords
common raven, Corvus corax, human model, imitation, social learning
##### Cite This
ISO 690LORETTO, Matthias-Claudio, Richard SCHUSTER, Ira G. FEDERSPIEL, Bernd HEINRICH, Thomas BUGNYAR, 2020. Contextual imitation in juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax. In: Animal Behaviour. Elsevier. 163, pp. 127-134. ISSN 0003-3472. eISSN 1095-8282. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2020.03.007
BibTex
@article{Loretto2020-05Conte-49226,
year={2020},
doi={10.1016/j.anbehav.2020.03.007},
title={Contextual imitation in juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax},
volume={163},
issn={0003-3472},
journal={Animal Behaviour},
pages={127--134},
author={Loretto, Matthias-Claudio and Schuster, Richard and Federspiel, Ira G. and Heinrich, Bernd and Bugnyar, Thomas}
}

RDF
<rdf:RDF
xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/"
xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#"
xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" >
<dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/>
<dcterms:title>Contextual imitation in juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax</dcterms:title>
<dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2020-04-17T09:24:27Z</dcterms:available>
<dc:contributor>Schuster, Richard</dc:contributor>
<dcterms:issued>2020-05</dcterms:issued>
<dc:creator>Bugnyar, Thomas</dc:creator>
<dc:contributor>Federspiel, Ira G.</dc:contributor>
<dc:creator>Heinrich, Bernd</dc:creator>
<void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource="http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql"/>
<dc:contributor>Loretto, Matthias-Claudio</dc:contributor>
<dspace:hasBitstream rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/49226/1/Loretto_2-gb1lyvr3s9062.pdf"/>
<dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Social learning is a powerful mechanism of information acquisition and can be found in various species. According to the type of information transmitted, animals may change their motivation to perform actions, shift their perception/attention to relevant stimuli, associate other individuals' behaviours with particular stimuli/events or learn to perform ‘novel’ behaviours. The latter is referred to as imitation and has been considered a cognitively demanding mechanism necessary for high-fidelity copying, which may or may not occur in nonhuman animals. We tested the ability of 20 juvenile ravens to imitate an action demonstrated by a human experimenter. Birds of two test groups could observe a familiar human executing one of two opening techniques at an artificial fruit apparatus (horizontal or vertical hand movements directed towards the same location), whereas birds of a control group observed the human touching but not opening the apparatus. Ravens of both test groups tended to use the same direction of movements as observed, when they opened the apparatus themselves with their beak. Comparison with the control group revealed that ravens had a predisposition to manipulate the apparatus by pecking. Hence, observers of vertical hand movements most likely strengthened their initial preference for executing peck movements towards an item enclosing food, whereas observers of horizontal hand movements started to apply beak/head movements that hardly occur during foraging and are ‘novel’ to this context. Juvenile ravens are thus capable of imitating simple motor actions, even though they may use a different body part to execute the behaviours than human demonstrators.</dcterms:abstract>
<dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2020-04-17T09:24:27Z</dc:date>
<dc:creator>Loretto, Matthias-Claudio</dc:creator>
<dc:language>eng</dc:language>
<dcterms:hasPart rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/49226/1/Loretto_2-gb1lyvr3s9062.pdf"/>
<foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/"/>
<dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/server/rdf/resource/123456789/28"/>
<dc:contributor>Heinrich, Bernd</dc:contributor>
<bibo:uri rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/49226"/>
<dc:creator>Federspiel, Ira G.</dc:creator>