Can toxin warfare against fungal parasitism influence short-term Dolichospermum bloom dynamics? : A field observation

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2020
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Cyanobacterial blooms often consist of numerous co-existing cyanobacterial species, with predominant taxa dynamically varying intra-annually. Parasitism by fungi (chytrids) has come into focus as an important factor driving short-term bloom dynamics. Using microscopic analysis, Illumina sequencing and cyanobacterial toxin analyses, we monitored the seasonal succession of Dolichospermum blooms in a reservoir along with environmental parameters. We identified two consecutive Dolichospermum blooms that were characterized by a straight and a coiled morphotype, separated by a complete bloom collapse. Phylotyping provided evidence for three putative Dolichospermum amplicon sequence variants (ASVs); i.e. Dolichospermum1 & 2 in the first bloom (straight filaments) and Dolichospermum3 in the second bloom (coiled filaments). Morphotype succession as well as total filament concentration did not correlate with any of the measured environmental parameters. Fungal parasitism by the chytrid Rhizosiphon crassum occurred in straight Dolichospermum filaments only. Coiled filaments showed no infection despite ambient presence of chytrids, deduced from fungal ASVs, throughout the entire observation period. Toxin concentrations (microcystins (MCs) and anabaenopeptins) correlated significantly with the abundance of the straight Dolichospermum morphotype. Enhanced cyanotoxin biosynthesis in the straight Dolichospermum morphotype, interpreted as a defensive reaction to fungal parasitism, appeared to come at the expense of lowered competitiveness with the co-occurring coiled morphotype. Our findings support the hypothesis that selective parasitism by chytrids is an important factor driving short-term morphotype and toxin dynamics within cyanobacterial blooms.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Bloom dynamics, Cyanobacteria, Dolichospermum, Cyanotoxins, Fungal parasitism, Chemical defence
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ISO 690WEISBROD, Barbara, Eva RIEHLE, M. HELMER, Dominik MARTIN-CREUZBURG, Daniel R. DIETRICH, 2020. Can toxin warfare against fungal parasitism influence short-term Dolichospermum bloom dynamics? : A field observation. In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier. 2020, 99, 101915. ISSN 1568-9883. eISSN 1878-1470. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2020.101915
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@article{Weisbrod2020-11toxin-51398,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.1016/j.hal.2020.101915},
  title={Can toxin warfare against fungal parasitism influence short-term Dolichospermum bloom dynamics? : A field observation},
  volume={99},
  issn={1568-9883},
  journal={Harmful Algae},
  author={Weisbrod, Barbara and Riehle, Eva and Helmer, M. and Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik and Dietrich, Daniel R.},
  note={Article Number: 101915}
}
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