Efficient movement strategies mitigate the energetic cost of dispersal

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2021
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Klarevas-Irby, James A.
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Dispersal is a critical, but costly, stage of life. During the active phase of dispersal—called transience—individuals face many costs, from increased mortality to reduced foraging opportunities. One cost that is often assumed, but rarely explicitly tested, is the energy expended in making large dispersal movements. However, this cost is not only determined by the distance individual’s move, but also how they move. Using high‐resolution GPS tracking of dispersing and resident vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum), we show that transient individuals exhibit distinct movement behaviours—travelling farther, faster and straighter—that result in a significant reduction in the energetic costs of making large displacements. This strategy allows dispersing birds to travel, on average, 33.8% farther each day with only a 4.1% cost increase and without spending more time moving. Our study suggests that adaptive movement strategies can largely mitigate movement costs during dispersal, and that such strategies may be common.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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adaptive strategies, animal behaviour, biologging, dispersal, ecophysiology, energetic costs, GPS tracking, movement ecology, terrestrial ecology, vulturine guineafowl
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ISO 690KLAREVAS-IRBY, James A., Martin WIKELSKI, Damien R. FARINE, 2021. Efficient movement strategies mitigate the energetic cost of dispersal. In: Ecology Letters. Wiley. 2021, 24(7), pp. 1432-1442. ISSN 1461-023X. eISSN 1461-0248. Available under: doi: 10.1111/ele.13763
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@article{KlarevasIrby2021-07Effic-53672,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.1111/ele.13763},
  title={Efficient movement strategies mitigate the energetic cost of dispersal},
  number={7},
  volume={24},
  issn={1461-023X},
  journal={Ecology Letters},
  pages={1432--1442},
  author={Klarevas-Irby, James A. and Wikelski, Martin and Farine, Damien R.},
  note={The research was funded by the Max Planck Society, grants awarded to D.R.F.: an Eccellenza Professorship Grant of the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant Number PCEFP3_187058), a grant from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 850859) and a grant from the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. The study benefited from additional funding from the Max Planck–Yale Center for Biodiversity Movement and Global Change, and support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy – EXC 2117–422037984. Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.}
}
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The research was funded by the Max Planck Society, grants awarded to D.R.F.: an Eccellenza Professorship Grant of the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant Number PCEFP3_187058), a grant from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 850859) and a grant from the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. The study benefited from additional funding from the Max Planck–Yale Center for Biodiversity Movement and Global Change, and support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy – EXC 2117–422037984. Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.
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