Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Contexts : Aspects of Gender, Parenting, and Culture

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Scholars from multiple disciplines claim that self-regulation is an essential skill and motivation for positive developmental outcomes (e.g., Mischel, 2014; Moffitt et al., 2011; Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). More specifically, self-regulation might play a central role for children’s school achievement (e.g., Blair, Ursache, Greenberg, Vernon-Feagans, & Investigators, 2015; McClelland et al., 2007; McClelland & Cameron, 2011; Suchodoletz, Trommsdorff, Heikamp, Wieber, & Gollwitzer, 2009). In spite of numerous studies on self-regulation in North America and Europe, relations between self-regulation and school achievement rarely have been studied in diverse contexts, taking into account the aspects of gender, parenting, and culture. Specifically, past research mostly neglected to study the development of self-regulation in diverse cultural contexts (Trommsdorff, 2012; Trommsdorff & Cole, 2011). In Latin American contexts, relations between self-regulation and school achievement have rarely been studied. Moreover, there is a lack of studies on socialization conditions for children's self-regulation and school achievement by taking into account the role of cultural and intra-cultural contexts. Further, past research mostly investigated behavior regulation as predictor for school achievement without considering a wider conceptualization of self-regulation including the aspects behavior and emotion regulation.
In three studies, the present dissertation investigated relations between different aspects of self-regulation (i.e., behavior regulation, emotion regulation) and school achievement in contexts by taking into consideration the aspects gender, parenting, and culture. While the first study focused on the role of gender for self-regulation and school achievement, the second study included socialization conditions (i.e., parenting) for children's development of self-regulation and adaptation to the school context in diverse cultural contexts (Germany, Chile). The third study examined effects of intra-cultural differences in mothers’ level of education on children's self-regulation and school achievement in Chile.
The first study of the present dissertation addressed gender differences in self-regulation and school achievement by taking into account different aspects of self-regulation, namely behavior and emotion regulation. This study examined whether gender differences in school achievement favoring girls can be explained by self-regulation. Self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) of 53 German fifth grade students was assessed by teachers’ and children’s ratings. School achievement (i.e., language and mathematics achievement) was measured using formal academic performance tests as well as grades for language and mathematics. Results revealed that girls’ higher language achievement was partly explained by gender differences in behavior regulation. Regarding mathematics achievement, the results showed a suppression effect of behavior regulation. Thus, boys’ mathematics achievement was underestimated when the analyses did not control for behavior regulation.
The second study expanded the research question of the first study by examining relations between parenting, children’s self-regulation and school achievement in two diverse cultural contexts. Specifically, this study investigated relations between maternal restrictive control, children’s self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation), and school achievement in Germany and Chile. The samples consisted of 76 German and 167 Chilean fourth grade students, their mothers, and their teachers. While maternal restrictive control was rated by mothers, self-regulation was rated by children, mothers, and teachers. School achievement was measured by grades for language and mathematics. This study showed that behavior regulation and anger-oriented emotion regulation were higher for German children than for Chilean children. Chilean mothers were found to use more restrictive control than German mothers. Further, results revealed positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement as well as negative relations between maternal restrictive control and children’s self-regulation in both cultural contexts. Thus, the second study showed cultural mean differences in parenting and children’s self-regulation but no cultural differences in the relations among the variables.
The third study took a closer look on intra-cultural differences in Chile by examining the relation between mothers’ level of education and children’s school achievement. The study investigated whether this relation can be explained by socialization conditions (mothers’ values, parenting) and children’s behavior regulation. The behavior regulation of 167 Chilean fourth grade students was measured by mothers’, teachers’, and children’s ratings. Mothers’ values (self-transcendence values) and parenting practices (maternal restrictive control) were evaluated by mothers. School achievement was measured by grades for language and mathematics. Results revealed positive relations between mothers’ level of education and children’s school achievement. Further, the study showed that these relations were partly explained by mothers’ values (self-transcendence values), parenting practices (maternal restrictive control), and children’s behavior regulation. Moreover, children’s behavior regulation was shown to be of central importance to explain relations between mothers’ level of education and children’s school achievement.
In sum, the present dissertation contributes to the understanding of developmental conditions and outcomes of self-regulation in contexts. By showing positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement, when taking into account gender, parenting practices as well as diverse cultural contexts, this dissertation highlights the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement in contexts. Moreover, the dissertation underlines the importance of considering the roles of gender, parenting, intra-cultural differences, and diverse cultural contexts when studying developmental conditions and outcomes of self-regulation. The results of this dissertation are discussed within the theoretical framework of developmental conditions and outcomes of self-regulation in diverse contexts. Moreover, implications for the development of context adapted intervention programs to promote self-regulation are addressed.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache

Forscher verschiedener Disziplinen betonen, dass die Fähigkeit und Motivation zur Selbstregulation eine wichtige Bedingung für positive Entwicklungsergebnisse darstellt (z. B. Mischel, 2014; Moffitt et al., 2011; Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). Insbesondere scheint die Selbstregulation eine wichtige Rolle für die Schulleistungen von Kindern zu spielen (z. B. Blair, Ursache, Greenberg, Vernon-Feagans, & Investigators, 2015; McClelland et al., 2007; McClelland & Cameron, 2011; Suchodoletz, Trommsdorff, Heikamp, Wieber, & Gollwitzer, 2009). Obwohl es eine große Anzahl von Studien zur Selbstregulation in Nordamerika und Europa gibt, wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen der Selbstregulation und Schulleistungen bisher kaum in verschiedenen Kontexten, unter Berücksichtigung der Aspekte Geschlecht, elterliche Erziehung und Kultur, untersucht. Insbesondere vernachlässigte die bisherige Forschung die Entwicklung der Selbstregulation in verschiedenen kulturellen Kontexten zu untersuchen (Trommsdorff, 2012; Trommsdorff & Cole, 2011). In lateinamerikanischen Kontexten wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen der Selbstregulation und Schulleistungen bisher kaum untersucht. Außerdem mangelt es an Studien zu Sozialisationsbedingungen der Selbstregulation und Schulleistungen von Kindern unter Berücksichtigung der Rolle kultureller und intrakultureller Kontexte. Zudem wurde in der bisherigen Forschung meist die Verhaltensregulation als Prädiktor für Schulleistungen untersucht, ohne der umfassenderen Konzeptualisierung von Selbstregulation mit den Aspekten Verhaltens- und Emotionsregulation gerecht zu werden.
Die vorliegende Dissertation untersuchte in drei Studien Zusammenhänge zwischen verschiedenen Aspekten der Selbstregulation (d. h. Verhaltens- und Emotionsregulation) und Schulleistungen in verschiedenen Kontexten unter Berücksichtigung der Aspekte Geschlecht, elterliche Erziehung und Kultur. Während die erste Studie insbesondere auf die Rolle von Geschlechtsunterschieden in der Selbstregulation und den Schulleistungen eingeht, bezieht die zweite Studie die Rolle von Sozialisationsbedingungen (z. B. elterliche Erziehung) für die Entwicklung der Selbstregulation des Kindes und die Anpassung an den Schulkontext in verschiedenen kulturellen Kontexten (Deutschland, Chile) mit ein. Die dritte Studie untersuchte Effekte von intrakulturellen Unterschieden des mütterlichen Bildungsniveaus auf die kindliche Selbstregulation und Schulleistungen in Chile.
Die erste Studie der vorliegenden Dissertation behandelt Geschlechtsunterschiede in der Selbstregulation und den Schulleistungen unter Berücksichtigung verschiedener Aspekte der Selbstregulation, und zwar Verhaltens- und Emotionsregulation. Diese Studie untersuchte, ob die besseren Schulleistungen von Mädchen durch die Selbstregulation erklärt werden können. Die Selbstregulation (d. h. Verhaltens- und Emotionsregulation) von 53 deutschen Fünftklässlern wurde durch Lehrer- und Kinderbeurteilungen erfasst. Die Schulleistungen (d. h. Sprach- und Mathematikleistungen) wurden durch standardisierte Schulleistungstests sowie durch Sprach- und Mathematiknoten gemessen. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die höheren Sprachleistungen von Mädchen teilweise durch Geschlechtsunterschiede in der Verhaltensregulation erklärt werden konnten. Bezüglich der Mathematikleistungen zeigten die Ergebnisse einen Unterdrückungseffekt der Verhaltensregulation. Demnach wurden die Mathematikleistungen von Jungen unterschätzt, wenn die Analysen nicht für Verhaltensregulation kontrollierten.
Die zweite Studie erweiterte die Forschungsfrage der ersten Studie, indem sie Zusammenhänge zwischen der elterlichen Erziehung, der kindlichen Selbstregulation und Schulleistungen in zwei verschiedenen kulturellen Kontexten untersuchte. Insbesondere untersuchte diese Studie Zusammenhänge zwischen mütterlicher restriktiver Kontrolle, kindlicher Selbstregulation (d. h. Verhaltens- und Emotionsregulation) und Schulleistungen in Deutschland und Chile. Die Stichproben bestanden aus 76 deutschen und 167 chilenischen Viertklässlern, deren Müttern und Lehrern. Während die mütterliche restriktive Kontrolle von den Müttern beurteilt wurde, wurde die Selbstregulation von den Kindern, Müttern und Lehrern eingeschätzt. Die Schulleistungen wurden durch Sprach- und Mathematiknoten gemessen. Diese Studie zeigte, dass die Verhaltensregulation sowie die ärgerorientierte Emotionsregulation bei deutschen Kindern höher ausgeprägt waren als bei chilenischen Kindern. Chilenische Mütter verwendeten mehr restriktive Kontrolle als deutsche Mütter. Außerdem ergaben die Ergebnisse positive Zusammenhänge zwischen der kindlichen Verhaltensregulation und den Schulleistungen sowie negative Zusammenhänge zwischen der mütterlichen restriktiven Kontrolle und der kindlichen Selbstregulation in beiden kulturellen Kontexten. Somit zeigte die zweite Studie kulturelle Mittelwertsunterschiede in der elterlichen Erziehung und in der kindlichen Selbstregulation aber keine Kulturunterschiede in den Zusammenhängen zwischen den Variablen.
Die dritte Studie ging genauer auf intrakulturelle Unterschiede in Chile ein, indem sie den Zusammenhang zwischen dem mütterlichen Bildungsniveau und den kindlichen Schulleistungen untersuchte. Die Studie prüfte, ob dieser Zusammenhang durch Sozialisationsbedingungen (mütterliche Werte, elterliche Erziehung) sowie durch die kindliche Verhaltensregulation erklärt werden kann. Die Verhaltensregulation von 167 chilenischen Viertklässlern wurde durch Beurteilungen von Müttern, Lehrern und Kindern gemessen. Mütterliche Werte (Selbsttranszendenz Werte) und elterliches Erziehungsverhalten (mütterliche restriktive Kontrolle) wurden durch die Mütter eingeschätzt. Die Schulleistungen wurden durch Sprach- und Mathematiknoten gemessen. Die Ergebnisse ergaben positive Zusammenhänge zwischen dem mütterlichen Bildungsniveau und den kindlichen Schulleistungen. Zudem zeigte die Studie, dass diese Zusammenhänge teilweise durch die mütterlichen Werte (Selbsttranszendenz Werte), das elterliche Erziehungsverhalten (mütterliche restriktive Kontrolle) und die kindliche Verhaltensregulation erklärt wurden. Außerdem wurde gezeigt, dass die kindliche Verhaltensregulation von besonders großer Bedeutung ist, um Zusammenhänge zwischen dem mütterlichen Bildungsniveau und den kindlichen Schulleistungen zu erklären.
Insgesamt trägt die vorliegende Dissertation zu einem besseren Verständnis der Entwicklungsbedingungen und Entwicklungsergebnisse von Selbstregulation in verschiedenen Kontexten bei. Es wurden positive Zusammenhänge zwischen der kindlichen Verhaltensregulation und Schulleistungen, unter Berücksichtigung von Geschlechtsunterschieden, elterlichem Erziehungsverhalten sowie verschiedenen kulturellen Kontexten, aufgezeigt. Somit verdeutlicht diese Dissertation die wichtige Bedeutung der Verhaltensregulation für die Schulleistungen in verschiedenen Kontexten. Außerdem betont die Dissertation, dass es wichtig ist den Einfluss von Geschlecht, elterlicher Erziehung, intrakulturellen Unterschieden und verschiedenen kulturellen Kontexten bei der Untersuchung von Entwicklungsbedingungen und Entwicklungsergebnissen der Selbstregulation zu berücksichtigen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Dissertation werden im theoretischen Rahmen von Entwicklungsbedingungen und Entwicklungsergebnissen von Selbstregulation in verschiedenen Kontexten diskutiert. Außerdem werden Implikationen für die Entwicklung von kontextangemessenen Interventionsprogrammen zur Förderung der Selbstregulation angesprochen.

Fachgebiet (DDC)
150 Psychologie
Schlagwörter
self-regulation, school achievement, gender, parenting, culture
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Zitieren
ISO 690WEIS, Mirjam, 2015. Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Contexts : Aspects of Gender, Parenting, and Culture [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz
BibTex
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  year={2015},
  title={Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Contexts : Aspects of Gender, Parenting, and Culture},
  author={Weis, Mirjam},
  address={Konstanz},
  school={Universität Konstanz}
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In Latin American contexts, relations between self-regulation and school achievement have rarely been studied. Moreover, there is a lack of studies on socialization conditions for children's self-regulation and school achievement by taking into account the role of cultural and intra-cultural contexts. Further, past research mostly investigated behavior regulation as predictor for school achievement without considering a wider conceptualization of self-regulation including the aspects behavior and emotion regulation.&lt;br /&gt;In three studies, the present dissertation investigated relations between different aspects of self-regulation (i.e., behavior regulation, emotion regulation) and school achievement in contexts by taking into consideration the aspects gender, parenting, and culture. 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School achievement (i.e., language and mathematics achievement) was measured using formal academic performance tests as well as grades for language and mathematics. Results revealed that girls’ higher language achievement was partly explained by gender differences in behavior regulation. Regarding mathematics achievement, the results showed a suppression effect of behavior regulation. Thus, boys’ mathematics achievement was underestimated when the analyses did not control for behavior regulation.&lt;br /&gt;The second study expanded the research question of the first study by examining relations between parenting, children’s self-regulation and school achievement in two diverse cultural contexts. Specifically, this study investigated relations between maternal restrictive control, children’s self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation), and school achievement in Germany and Chile. The samples consisted of 76 German and 167 Chilean fourth grade students, their mothers, and their teachers. While maternal restrictive control was rated by mothers, self-regulation was rated by children, mothers, and teachers. School achievement was measured by grades for language and mathematics. This study showed that behavior regulation and anger-oriented emotion regulation were higher for German children than for Chilean children. Chilean mothers were found to use more restrictive control than German mothers. Further, results revealed positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement as well as negative relations between maternal restrictive control and children’s self-regulation in both cultural contexts. Thus, the second study showed cultural mean differences in parenting and children’s self-regulation but no cultural differences in the relations among the variables.&lt;br /&gt;The third study took a closer look on intra-cultural differences in Chile by examining the relation between mothers’ level of education and children’s school achievement. The study investigated whether this relation can be explained by socialization conditions (mothers’ values, parenting) and children’s behavior regulation. The behavior regulation of 167 Chilean fourth grade students was measured by mothers’, teachers’, and children’s ratings. Mothers’ values (self-transcendence values) and parenting practices (maternal restrictive control) were evaluated by mothers. School achievement was measured by grades for language and mathematics. Results revealed positive relations between mothers’ level of education and children’s school achievement. 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October 22, 2015
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Konstanz, Univ., Diss., 2015
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