The fall of the summer truffle : Recurring hot, dry summers result in declining fruitbody production of Tuber aestivum in Central Europe

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2022
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Büntgen, Ulf
Stobbe, Uli
Tegel, Willy
Sproll, Ludger
Haeni, Matthias
Moser, Barbara
Bagi, István
Peter, Martina
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Global warming is pushing populations outside their range of physiological tolerance. According to the environmental envelope framework, the most vulnerable populations occur near the climatic edge of their species' distributions. In contrast, populations from the climatic center of the species range should be relatively buffered against climate warming. We tested this latter prediction using a combination of linear mixed effects and machine learning algorithms on an extensive, citizen-scientist generated dataset on the fruitbody productivity of the Burgundy (aka summer) truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.), a keystone, ectomycorrhizal tree-symbiont occurring on a wide range of temperate climates. T. aestivum's fruitbody productivity was monitored at 3-week resolution over up to 8 continuous years at 20 sites distributed in the climatic center of its European distribution in southwest Germany and Switzerland. We found that T. aestivum fruitbody production is more sensitive to summer drought than would be expected from the breadth of its species' climatic niche. The monitored populations occurring nearly 5°C colder than the edge of their species' climatic distribution. However, interannual fruitbody productivity (truffle mass year-1 ) fell by a median loss of 22% for every 1°C increase in summer temperature over a site's 30-year mean. Among the most productive monitored populations, the temperature sensitivity was even higher, with single summer temperature anomalies of 3°C sufficient to stop fruitbody production altogether. Interannual truffle productivity was also related to the phenology of host trees, with ~22 g less truffle mass for each 1-day reduction in the length of the tree growing season. Increasing summer drought extremes are therefore likely to reduce fruiting among summer truffle populations throughout Central Europe. Our results suggest that European T. aestivum may be a mosaic of vulnerable populations, sensitive to climate-driven declines at lower thresholds than implied by its species distribution model.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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climate change, drought extremes, ecological niche, global warming, mycorrhizal fungi, truffles
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ISO 690STEIDINGER, Brian S., Ulf BÜNTGEN, Uli STOBBE, Willy TEGEL, Ludger SPROLL, Matthias HAENI, Barbara MOSER, István BAGI, Simon EGLI, Martina PETER, 2022. The fall of the summer truffle : Recurring hot, dry summers result in declining fruitbody production of Tuber aestivum in Central Europe. In: Global Change Biology. Wiley. 2022, 28(24), pp. 7376-7390. ISSN 1354-1013. eISSN 1365-2486. Available under: doi: 10.1111/gcb.16424
BibTex
@article{Steidinger2022-12summe-59171,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.1111/gcb.16424},
  title={The fall of the summer truffle : Recurring hot, dry summers result in declining fruitbody production of Tuber aestivum in Central Europe},
  number={24},
  volume={28},
  issn={1354-1013},
  journal={Global Change Biology},
  pages={7376--7390},
  author={Steidinger, Brian S. and Büntgen, Ulf and Stobbe, Uli and Tegel, Willy and Sproll, Ludger and Haeni, Matthias and Moser, Barbara and Bagi, István and Egli, Simon and Peter, Martina}
}
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