Climatic stability and geological history shape global centers of neo- and paleoendemism in seed plants

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Assessing the distribution of geographically restricted and evolutionarily unique species and their underlying drivers is key to understanding biogeographical processes and critical for global conservation prioritization. Here, we quantified the geographic distribution and drivers of phylogenetic endemism for ~320,000 seed plants worldwide and identified centers and drivers of evolutionarily young (neoendemism) and evolutionarily old endemism (paleoendemism). Tropical and subtropical islands as well as tropical mountain regions displayed the world’s highest phylogenetic endemism. Most tropical rainforest regions emerged as centers of paleoendemism, while most Mediterranean-climate regions showed high neoendemism. Centers where high neo- and paleoendemism coincide emerged on some oceanic and continental fragment islands, in Mediterranean-climate regions and parts of the Irano-Turanian floristic region. Global variation in phylogenetic endemism was well explained by a combination of past and present environmental factors (79.8 to 87.7% of variance explained) and most strongly related to environmental heterogeneity. Also, warm and wet climates, geographic isolation, and long-term climatic stability emerged as key drivers of phylogenetic endemism. Neo- and paleoendemism were jointly explained by climatic and geological history. Long-term climatic stability promoted the persistence of paleoendemics, while the isolation of oceanic islands and their unique geological histories promoted neoendemism. Mountainous regions promoted both neo- and paleoendemism, reflecting both diversification and persistence over time. Our study provides insights into the evolutionary underpinnings of biogeographical patterns in seed plants and identifies the areas on Earth with the highest evolutionary and biogeographical uniqueness—key information for setting global conservation priorities.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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islands, mountains, past climate change, phylogenetic endemism, plant diversity
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ISO 690CAI, Lirong, Holger KREFT, Amanda TAYLOR, Julian SCHRADER, Wayne DAWSON, Franz ESSL, Mark VAN KLEUNEN, Jan PERGL, Petr PYŠEK, Marten WINTER, Patrick WEIGELT, 2023. Climatic stability and geological history shape global centers of neo- and paleoendemism in seed plants. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). National Academy of Sciences. 2023, 120(30), e2300981120. ISSN 0027-8424. eISSN 1091-6490. Available under: doi: 10.1073/pnas.2300981120
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@article{Cai2023-07-17Clima-67388,
  year={2023},
  doi={10.1073/pnas.2300981120},
  title={Climatic stability and geological history shape global centers of neo- and paleoendemism in seed plants},
  number={30},
  volume={120},
  issn={0027-8424},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)},
  author={Cai, Lirong and Kreft, Holger and Taylor, Amanda and Schrader, Julian and Dawson, Wayne and Essl, Franz and van Kleunen, Mark and Pergl, Jan and Pyšek, Petr and Winter, Marten and Weigelt, Patrick},
  note={M.v.K. acknowledges DFG funding (grant 264740629) Article Number: e2300981120}
}
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M.v.K. acknowledges DFG funding (grant 264740629)
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