Comfort eating : an observational study of affect in the hours immediately before, and after, snacking

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2021
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Franja, Stefania
Elliston, Katherine G.
Ferguson, Stuart G.
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Zusammenfassung

Objective:
‘Comfort eating’ has been used to explain real‐world food choices, suggesting that individuals are drawn to energy‐dense (‘unhealthy’) snacks when experiencing negative affect. However, this concept has rarely been studied, particularly in real‐world settings. Similarly, the effects of snacking on subsequent affect are also poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the association between affect and snacking in daily life.

Methods:
One hundred and forty‐one adults recorded their food intake in real time for ~14 days using a study issued mobile phone. Participants also responded to randomly timed assessments. During both types of assessments, participants indicated their current level of affect. By anchoring off snacking events, the trajectory of affect in the hours leading up to – and following – snacking was explored.

Results:
In the three hours leading up to a healthy snack, affect was stable. In contrast, affect fell during the hours leading up to an unhealthy snack. The interaction between snack type and time was significant. A similar, but opposite, pattern was seen following snacking: where affect decreased after unhealthy snacking, affect increased following healthy snack intake.

Conclusion:
The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of comfort eating, with unhealthy snacking being preceded by worsening affect. Unhealthy snacking did not, however, lead to affect improvements afterwards, which questions the ‘effectiveness’ of comfort eating. The intake of healthy snacks however was associated with positive affective experiences. These findings could function as a component of interventions aiming at improving dietary behaviours.

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ISO 690FRANJA, Stefania, Deborah R. WAHL, Katherine G. ELLISTON, Stuart G. FERGUSON, 2021. Comfort eating : an observational study of affect in the hours immediately before, and after, snacking. In: British journal of health psychology. Wiley. 2021, 26(3), pp. 825-838. ISSN 1359-107X. eISSN 2044-8287. Available under: doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12505
BibTex
@article{Franja2021-09Comfo-52618,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.1111/bjhp.12505},
  title={Comfort eating : an observational study of affect in the hours immediately before, and after, snacking},
  number={3},
  volume={26},
  issn={1359-107X},
  journal={British journal of health psychology},
  pages={825--838},
  author={Franja, Stefania and Wahl, Deborah R. and Elliston, Katherine G. and Ferguson, Stuart G.}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Objective:&lt;br /&gt;‘Comfort eating’ has been used to explain real‐world food choices, suggesting that individuals are drawn to energy‐dense (‘unhealthy’) snacks when experiencing negative affect. However, this concept has rarely been studied, particularly in real‐world settings. Similarly, the effects of snacking on subsequent affect are also poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the association between affect and snacking in daily life.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Methods:&lt;br /&gt;One hundred and forty‐one adults recorded their food intake in real time for ~14 days using a study issued mobile phone. Participants also responded to randomly timed assessments. During both types of assessments, participants indicated their current level of affect. By anchoring off snacking events, the trajectory of affect in the hours leading up to – and following – snacking was explored.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Results:&lt;br /&gt;In the three hours leading up to a healthy snack, affect was stable. In contrast, affect fell during the hours leading up to an unhealthy snack. The interaction between snack type and time was significant. A similar, but opposite, pattern was seen following snacking: where affect decreased after unhealthy snacking, affect increased following healthy snack intake.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Conclusion:&lt;br /&gt;The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of comfort eating, with unhealthy snacking being preceded by worsening affect. Unhealthy snacking did not, however, lead to affect improvements afterwards, which questions the ‘effectiveness’ of comfort eating. The intake of healthy snacks however was associated with positive affective experiences. These findings could function as a component of interventions aiming at improving dietary behaviours.</dcterms:abstract>
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