Influence of anisotropy on heterogeneous nucleation of gold nanorod assemblies

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Faraday Discussions. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). 2022, 235, pp. 132-147. ISSN 1359-6640. eISSN 1364-5498. Available under: doi: 10.1039/D1FD00087J
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In this study, we analysed for the first time heterogeneous nucleation with anisotropic nanoparticles as a model system for non-spherical building units on the nanoscale. Gold nanorods were synthesised and assembled to investigate the phenomenon of heterogeneous nucleation. To determine the influence of the particle shape on heterogeneous nucleation, we utilised gold nanorods with varying aspect ratios, ranging from 3.00 and 2.25 to 1.75, while keeping the surface chemistry constant. First, the nucleation of the gold nanorod assemblies in solution and the process kinetics were analyzed with UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy followed by a microscopic examination of the gold nanorod-based superstructures formed heterogeneously on substrates. Here, positively charged cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-functionalized gold nanorods and negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) functionalized substrates ensured the directed heterogeneous nucleation on the substrates. A combination of light microscopy with simultaneous UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy allowed us to observe the gold nanorod-based superstructure formation on the substrates in situ and to determine the nucleation rates of the process. We analysed the resulting data with the classical nucleation theory, which revealed a dominating kinetic term and a negligible thermodynamic term in contrast to ionic systems like calcium carbonate. Our studies consistently exhibit an influence of the aspect ratio on the nucleation behaviour resulting in faster nucleation of superstructures as the aspect ratio decreases. Hence our studies show unprecedented insight into the influence of particle anisotropy on the nucleation and growth of nanorod-based superstructures and reveal significant differences in the nucleation of nanoparticle building units compared to the nucleation of atoms or molecules as building units.

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ISO 690GÖPPERT, Ann-Kathrin, Guillermo GONZALEZ-RUBIO, Helmut CÖLFEN, 2022. Influence of anisotropy on heterogeneous nucleation of gold nanorod assemblies. In: Faraday Discussions. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). 2022, 235, pp. 132-147. ISSN 1359-6640. eISSN 1364-5498. Available under: doi: 10.1039/D1FD00087J
BibTex
@article{Goppert2022-07-14Influ-57327,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.1039/D1FD00087J},
  title={Influence of anisotropy on heterogeneous nucleation of gold nanorod assemblies},
  volume={235},
  issn={1359-6640},
  journal={Faraday Discussions},
  pages={132--147},
  author={Göppert, Ann-Kathrin and Gonzalez-Rubio, Guillermo and Cölfen, Helmut}
}
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