Closing of the Tethys Sea and the phylogeny of Eurasian killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae)

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2003
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Hrbek, Tomas
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Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2003, 16(1), pp. 17-36. ISSN 1010-061X. eISSN 1420-9101. Available under: doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00475.x
Zusammenfassung

To test vicariant speciation hypotheses derived from geological evidence of the closing of the Tethys Sea, we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the predominantly fresh-water killifish genus Aphanius using 3263 aligned base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from samples representing 49 populations of 13 species. We use additional 11 cyprinodontid species as outgroup taxa. Genes analysed include those encoding the partial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs; transfer RNAs for valine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, asparagine, cysteine and tyrosine; and complete nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I and II. Molecular substitution rate for this DNA region is estimated at of 8.6 ± 0.1 · 10)9 substitutions base pair)1 year)1, and is derived from a well dated transgression of the Red Sea into the Wadi Sirhan of Jordan 13 million years ago; an alternate substitution rate of 1.1 ± 0.2 · 10)8 substitutions base pair)1 year)1 is estimated from fossil evidence. Aphanius forms two major clades which correspond to the former eastern and western Tethys Sea. Within the eastern clade Oligocene divergence into a fresh-water clade inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula and an euhaline clade inhabiting coastal area from Pakistan to Somalia is observed.
Within the western Tethys Sea clade we observe a middle Oligocene divergence into Iberian Peninsula and Atlas Mountains, and Turkey and Iran sections. Within Turkey we observe a large amount of genetic differentiation correlated with late Miocene orogenic events. Based on concordance of patterns of phylogenetic relationships and area relationships derived from geological and fossil data, as well as temporal congruence of these patterns, we support a predominantly vicariant-based speciation hypothesis for the genus Aphanius. An exception to this pattern forms the main clade of A. fasciatus, an euhaline circum-Mediterranean species, which shows little genetic differentiation or population structuring, thus providing no support for the hypothesis of vicariant differentiation associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The two phylogenetically deepest events were also likely driven by ecological changes associated with the closing of the Tethys Sea.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Aphanius sp. complex, extinction, historical biogeography, Messinian Salinity Crisis, molecular phylogeny, mtDNA, Tethys Sea
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ISO 690HRBEK, Tomas, Axel MEYER, 2003. Closing of the Tethys Sea and the phylogeny of Eurasian killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae). In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2003, 16(1), pp. 17-36. ISSN 1010-061X. eISSN 1420-9101. Available under: doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00475.x
BibTex
@article{Hrbek2003Closi-7624,
  year={2003},
  doi={10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00475.x},
  title={Closing of the Tethys Sea and the phylogeny of Eurasian killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae)},
  number={1},
  volume={16},
  issn={1010-061X},
  journal={Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
  pages={17--36},
  author={Hrbek, Tomas and Meyer, Axel}
}
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