The Possibilities of the Journalism as Peacebuilding in the Periphery : the Colombian Case

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Ordonez Garzón, Jairo Enrique
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Die Möglichkeiten des Journalismus als Friedenskonsolidierung in der Peripherie: der kolumbianische Fall
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Zusammenfassung

This dissertation analyzes the way the Colombian conflict is represented in Colombian and international qualitative independent opinion articles and their influence on readers' understanding of the conflict.
The Colombian government has carried on an extensive propaganda campaign to promote disinformation in order to disguise the aims of weakening the political opposition and politically and economically 'legalizing' a wide range of Mafia activities in Colombia. This shows the influence that the paramilitary mafia exercises in important areas of Colombian political and economic life. It is inherent in the high level of corruption caused by the 'Narcotraffic'. However, the US War on Drugs demands at least some results, which until now have been minimal with respect to the Narcotraffic, although very successful against the guerrillas, who are to some extent competitors of the paramilitaries in the drug traffic. Due to the War on Drugs, some drug lords have received jail sentences, although under very mild and lax conditions. This seems to be more a legalization than a punishment, at least in the case of the paramilitaries. After a short prison term, the drug dealer is "clean" again and is free to resume his illegal business. All this explains the disinformation promoted by the official propaganda and the lack of knowledge about the war on the part of the average Colombian.
Given this situation, it is essential for the public to be able to rely on independent media that can expose the lies of official propaganda and inform the public about the risks of accepting the illegal as the law, the so-called Pax Mafiosa (when an illegal party won the war and imposed its order). Understanding what is happening in Colombia can help people take a stand against violence and criminality as solutions. The current military strategy and the infiltration of the paramilitary mafia into the government represent both violence and criminality.
In Colombia there are independent journalists, but according to this research, they are victims of polarization and for this reason are promoting the war, although this is not their intention. Nevertheless, with the help of the international qualitative media it would be possible to reorient Colombian journalism towards a journalism pro peace. In all cases, I selected what I regard as opinion articles, because unlike news articles, opinion articles offer analyses and are very free to be critical.
In all, 66 subjects participated in an experimental study designed to measure the impact of the articles on readers. Of them, 94% were German citizens, and on average they were 24 years old. All the subjects had little knowledge of the Colombian conflict. Three groups were set up. The first had to read 22 Colombian opinion articles, the second 22 international articles, and the third both sets of articles. After reading the articles, all the subjects completed the same questionnaires.
According to the results of the experiment, obtained with quantitative and qualitative analysis, the Colombian articles belong to the 'journalism of attachment', and the international articles to 'journalism pro peace'.
However, the international articles alone do not fully explain the conflict, because they lack the rich details that the Colombian articles offer. For this reason, a first step toward countering the official propaganda would be to combine the two types of journalism to provide Colombians readers with pro-peace, detailed and enlightening information. With more qualitative information, Colombian readers will be able to understand, in a pro-peace style, the conflict and its causes, and to avoid polarization and one-sided attributions of guilt. Additionally, they will be better prepared to look for democratic solutions, such as electing mayors, legislators and a president who are more interested in a peaceful resolution of the conflict than in the current military approach.
The effort to counter propaganda is only one step on the long and very complex path to peace, but because no one wants Colombia to completely fail as a state, informing and enlightening Colombian citizens about the conflict must be a priority. The research suggests that the Colombian journalism of attachment should be reoriented in a more productive way. The results of this experiment are encouraging, and perhaps if they were transformed into praxis, they would provide an opportunity for a country that desperately needs peace.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache

Das Ziel der vorliegenden Dissertation war eine Analyse der Darstellungen des Kolumbienkonfliktes in unabhängigen kolumbianischen und internationalen Leitartikeln angesehener Medien, sowie des Einflusses der Darstellungen auf das Konfliktverständnis der Leser.
Die kolumbianische Regierung bedient sich umfangreicher Propaganda um die Desinformation der Bevölkerung zu fördern und das folgende Projekt zu verschleiern: die Schwächung der politischen Opposition und die politische und wirtschaftliche Legalisierung mafiöser Aktivitäten. Dieser Zweck ihrer Propaganda verdeutlicht die Macht der Mafia (insbesondere durch Drogenhandel) in Kolumbien. Sie kontrolliert wichtige Teile des politischen und wirtschaftlichen Lebens.
Allerdings ist die USA in Kolumbien präsent und in ihrem Kampf gegen Drogen darauf angewiesen mit der Regierung zusammenzuarbeiten. Zwei wichtige Gruppen des Drogenhandels in Kolumbien sind Guerilla und Paramilitärs. Die Paramilitärs führen ihre Geschäfte versteckt und unter dem Deckmantel der Regierung aus. Die Konsequenz daraus ist, dass der Drogenhandel bislang nur der Guerilla erschwert wurde und bis heute keine wirkliche Reduzierung des Drogenhandels erreicht wurde.
Die Haftbedingungen der Drogenbarone, scheinen im Fall der Paramilitärs mehr eine Legalisierung als eine Strafe zu sein. Nach einer kurzen Verurteilung sind die Drogenbarone wieder anständige und freie Staatsbürger und können mit ihren illegalen Geschäften weitermachen.
All dies wird durch die gezielte Desinformation der offiziellen Tegierungspropaganda bewirkt, die vom kolumbianischen Durchschnittsbürger nicht durchschaut wird.
Es ist darum unerlässlich, sich auf unabhängige Medien zu stützen, um erstens die Lügen der offiziellen Propaganda aufzudecken, um zweitens die öffentliche Meinung darauf aufmerksam zu machen, wie illegale Ansichten als geltendes Recht verkauft werden (die sog. Pax Mafiosa, d.h. wenn Kriminelle das Land regieren und ihre Vorstellungen von Frieden der Bevölkerung auferlegen).
In Kolumbien gibt es unabhängige Journalisten, aber nach den Prämissen dieser Forschungsarbeit müssen sie als Opfer der Polarisierung bezeichnet werden, weil sie ohne bewusste Absicht den Krieg unterstützen. Dennoch ist es eine Hypothese dieser Arbeit, dass es mit der Hilfe internationaler renommierter Medien möglich ist, diesen unabhängigen Journalismus in Kolumbien zu einem Journalismus Pro-Frieden zu verändern.
Für die vorliegende Untersuchung wurden Artikel ausgewählt, die als Leitartikel bezeichnet werden können, weil sie Analysen machen und in freier Form geschrieben sind.
Der Versuchspersonenpool setzte sich aus 66 Personen zusammen. 94% hatten deutsche Nationalität und waren durchschnittlich 24 Jahre alt. Alle Versuchspersonen hatten nur geringe Kenntnisse des Konflikts in Kolumbien. Je 22 Personen mussten entweder 22 kolumbianische oder 22 internationale oder beide (also insgesamt 44) Leitartikel lesen und nach der Lektüre der Artikel denselben Fragebogen beantworten.
Die Ergebnisse der Analysen des vorliegenden Experiments zeigen, dass kolumbianische Artikel eher einem "Journalismus of Attachment" und internationale Artikel eher einem "Journalismus Pro-Frieden" zugeordnet werden können.
Ein wichtiges Ergebnis dieser Arbeit ist es deshalb, eine Kombination der beiden Arten des Journalismus zu verwenden, um der offiziellen Propaganda entgegenzutreten. Dem kolumbianischen Leser kann auf diese Weise ein Journalismus pro Frieden, detaillierte Information und Aufklärung angeboten werden.
Mit mehr qualitativen Informationen in einem "Pro Frieden" Journalismus könnten Kolumbianische Leser Polarisierung und Vorverurteilung vermeiden, den Konflikt und seine Ursachen verstehen und sich damit für demokratische Lösungen entscheiden.
Der Aufwand gegen den Einfluss der Propaganda ist nur ein Schritt für den Frieden, aber notwendig für Kolumbien als vertrauenswürdiger Staat. Diese Untersuchung hat gezeigt, wie der kolumbianische Journalismus of Attachment verändert werden muss, um seiner Funktion als Information und Aufklärung der Bürger über den Konflikt gerecht zu werden.

Fachgebiet (DDC)
150 Psychologie
Schlagwörter
Friedensjournalismus, Friedenspsychologie, El Espectador, María Jimena Duzan, Ivan Cepeda, Opinion Articles, Colombian Conflict, Colombian Journalism, Journalism of Attachment
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ISO 690ORDONEZ GARZÓN, Jairo Enrique, 2009. The Possibilities of the Journalism as Peacebuilding in the Periphery : the Colombian Case [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz
BibTex
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  year={2009},
  title={The Possibilities of the Journalism as Peacebuilding in the Periphery : the Colombian Case},
  author={Ordonez Garzón, Jairo Enrique},
  address={Konstanz},
  school={Universität Konstanz}
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