Can allelopathically active submerged macrophytes stabilise clear-water states in shallow lakes?

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2008
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Hilt, Sabine
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Zusammenfassung

Inhibition of phytoplankton by allelochemicals released by submerged macrophytes is supposed to be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the stabilisation of clear-water states in shallow lakes. The relevance of this process at ecosystem level, however, is debated because in situ evidence is difficult to achieve. Our literature review indicates that allelopathically active species such as Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Elodea and Najas or certain charophytes are among the most frequent submerged macrophytes in temperate shallow lakes. The most common experimental approach for allelopathic interference between macrophytes and phytoplankton has been the use of plant extracts or purified plant compounds. Final evidence, however, requires combination with more realistic in situ experiments. Such investigations have successfully been performed with selected species. In situ allelopathic activity is also influenced by the fact that phytoplankton species exhibit differential sensitivity against allelochemicals both between and within major taxonomic groups such as diatoms, cyanobacteria and chlorophytes. In general, epiphytic species apparently are less sensitive towards allelochemicals than phytoplankton despite living closely attached to the plants and being of key importance for macrophyte growth due to their shading. Light and nutrient availability potentially influence the sensitivity of target algae and cyanobacteria. Whether or not additional stressors such as nutrient limitation enhance or dampen allelopathic interactions still has to be clarified. We strongly propose allelopathy as an important mechanism in the interaction between submerged macrophytes and phytoplankton in shallow lakes based on the frequent occurrence of active species and the knowledge of potential target species. The role of allelopathy interfering with epiphyton development is less well understood. Including further levels of complexity, such as nutrient interference, grazing and climate, will extend this ecosystem-based view of in situ allelopathy.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache

Die Inhibition von Phytoplankton durch Allelochemikalien aus submersen Makrophyten ist einer der potentiellen Mechanismen, die zur Stabilisierung von Klarwasserzuständen in Makrophyten-dominierten Flachseen beitragen. Die Relevanz dieses Prozesses auf Ökosystemebene ist jedoch umstritten, da der in situ Nachweis schwierig ist. Unsere Literaturübersicht zeigt, dass allelopathisch aktive Arten wie Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Elodea und Najas sowie bestimmte Characeen zu den häufigsten submersen Makrophyten in Flachseen der gemäßigten Breiten gehören. Der experimentelle Nachweis allelopathischer Effekte auf Phytoplankton erfolgte bisher überwiegend durch Pflanzenextrakte oder aufgereinigte Substanzen. Ein endgültiger Beweis erfordert jedoch zusätzlich Experimente unter in situ Bedingungen, die bisher nur für einige Arten verfügbar sind. Die allelopathische Aktivität in situ wird auch durch die differentielle Sensitivität der Phytoplanktonarten gegenüber Allelochemikalien beeinflusst, die sowohl zwischen als auch innerhalb verschiedener Gruppen wie Diatomeen, Grünalgen und Cyanobakterien nachgewiesen wurde. Epiphytische Arten erscheinen im Allgemeinen weniger durch Allelochemikalien beeinflusst als planktische, obwohl sie direkt auf der Pflanzenoberfläche leben und durch ihre Beschattung eine Schlüsselrolle für das Wachstum der Makrophyten spielen. Licht- und Nährstoffverfügbarkeit können die Sensitivität des Phytoplanktons beeinflussen. Ob zusätzlicher Stress z.B. durch Phosphatlimitation allelopathische Interaktionen verstärkt oder abschwächt, muss noch geklärt werden. Aufgrund des derzeitigen Wissensstandes zur Häufigkeit allelopathisch aktiver submerser Makrophytenarten sowie der Sensitivität der Zielorganismen halten wir Allelopathie für einen wichtigen Mechanismus in der Interaktion zwischen submersen Makrophyten und Phytoplankton in Flachseen. Die Rolle der Allelopathie bei der Beeinflussung der Epiphytonentwicklung ist dagegen bisher weniger gut verstanden. Die Einbeziehung weiterer komplexer Ebenen wie Nährstoffinteraktionen, Grazing und Klimaänderungen wird unsere Ökosystem-basierte Sicht allelopathischer in situ Aktivität weiter vertiefen.

Fachgebiet (DDC)
570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Allelopathy, Shallow lakes, Bistability, Alternative stable states, Submerged macrophytes, In situ evidence, Phytoplank
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ISO 690HILT, Sabine, Elisabeth GROSS, 2008. Can allelopathically active submerged macrophytes stabilise clear-water states in shallow lakes?. In: Basic and Applied Ecology. 2008, 9(4), pp. 422-432. ISSN 1439-1791. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2007.04.003
BibTex
@article{Hilt2008allel-8614,
  year={2008},
  doi={10.1016/j.baae.2007.04.003},
  title={Can allelopathically active submerged macrophytes stabilise clear-water states in shallow lakes?},
  number={4},
  volume={9},
  issn={1439-1791},
  journal={Basic and Applied Ecology},
  pages={422--432},
  author={Hilt, Sabine and Gross, Elisabeth}
}
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